Integrated wiring is a modular and highly flexible information transmission channel between buildings or architectural complexes. It enables voice, data, imaging, and switching devices to connect with other information management systems, as well as external connections. It also includes all cables and related connection parts between the connection point of the building's external network or the telecommunication line and the application system equipment. Integrated wiring consists of different series and specifications of components, including: transmission media, related hardware (such as wiring racks, connectors, sockets, plugs, adapters) and electrical protection equipment. These components can be used to build subsystems that have their specific purpose, are easy to implement, and can be upgraded smoothly as demand changes.
1. Development process of integrated wiring
In retrospect, the development of integrated cabling is closely related to the building automation system. Traditional wiring such as telephone, computer LAN are independent. Each system is designed and installed by different manufacturers, the traditional wiring uses different cables and different terminal sockets. Furthermore, plugs, sockets and wiring racks connecting these different wiring lines cannot be compatible with each other. Office layout and environmental changes are often occurring, need to adjust office equipment or with the development of new technologies, the need to replace the equipment, you must replace the wiring. As a result of the addition of new cable and left unused cables, for a long period of years, resulting in a pile of clutter in the building of the cable, causing a lot of hidden trouble. Maintenance inconvenience, transformation is also very difficult. ---http://bianceng.cn (computer science)
With the development of global social informatization and economic internationalization, people's demand for information sharing is becoming more and more urgent, so it needs a wiring scheme suitable for the information age.
After years of research, experts from the Bell Laboratories of the United States Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) company pioneered the SYSTIMATMPDS (building and complex cabling system) in the late 1980s, based on the success of the office building and factory trials. A structured cabling system, SCS, has now been introduced. By the People's Republic of China National standard gb/t50311-2000 named integrated wiring GCS (Generic cabling System).
Integrated wiring is a kind of pre wiring, can adapt to a long period of time demand.
2. Characteristics of integrated wiring
Compared with the traditional wiring, the integrated wiring has many advantages, which can not be compared with the traditional wiring. Its characteristic mainly manifests in it has the compatibility, the openness, the flexibility, the reliability, the advancement and the economy. And in the design, construction and maintenance of people also brought a lot of convenience.
(1) Compatibility: The first feature of integrated wiring is its compatibility. The so-called compatibility means that it is completely independent of the application system, and can be applied to a variety of applications.
In the past, when wiring the voice or data lines of a building or a complex, it was often used by different manufacturers of cable, wiring sockets and connectors. For example, a user switch usually uses twisted-pair wires, and the computer system usually uses a coarse coaxial cable or a thin coaxial cable. These different devices use different wiring materials, and connect these different wiring plugs, sockets and terminal boards are not the same, incompatible with each other. When a terminal or telephone location needs to be changed, new cables must be laid and new sockets and connectors will be installed.
Integrated wiring will voice, data and monitoring equipment signal line through a unified planning and design, using the same transmission media, information outlets, communication equipment, adapters, etc., these different signals into a set of standard wiring. This shows that this wiring is much simpler than the traditional wiring, can save a lot of material, time and space.
When used, users do not have to define the specific application of an information outlet in a workspace, only a certain terminal equipment (such as personal computer, telephone, video equipment, etc.) plugged into the information socket, and then in the management and equipment between the handover equipment to do the corresponding wiring operation, the terminal device is connected to their respective systems.
(2) Openness: for the traditional wiring way, as long as the user selected a certain device, also selected to adapt to the wiring and transmission media. If the replacement of another device, then the original wiring will be replaced. For a building that has already been completed, this change is very difficult, and much more investment is needed.
As an open architecture, integrated wiring conforms to a variety of international standards, so it is almost open to all famous manufacturers, such as computer equipment, switch equipment, etc., and support all communication protocols, such as ISO/IEC8802-3,ISO/IEC8802-5.
(3) Flexibility: The traditional wiring method is closed, its architecture is fixed, to migrate equipment or add equipment is very difficult and troublesome, even impossible.
The integrated wiring uses the standard transmission cable and the related connection hardware, the modular design. So all the channels are generic. Each channel can support terminal, Ethernet workstation and Token Ring workstation. All equipment opening and changes do not need to change the wiring, just add or subtract the corresponding application equipment and in the wiring rack to carry out the necessary jumper management. In addition, the network can be flexible, even in the same room can have multi-user terminals, Ethernet workstation, Token Ring network workstation coexist, for users to organize information flow provides the necessary conditions.
(4) Reliability: The traditional wiring method because each application system is incompatible, so in a building often have a variety of wiring schemes. Therefore, the reliability of the building system to be selected by the reliability of the wiring to ensure that when the application system wiring is not at that time, will also cause cross interference.
The integrated wiring uses the high quality material and the combination pressure connection form a set of high standard information transmission channel. All wire slots and related connectors are certified by ISO, each channel must use special instrument to test the link impedance and attenuation rate to ensure its electrical performance. The application system wiring all uses point-to-point end-to-end, any link fault does not affect other link's operation, this has provided the convenience for the link operation maintenance and the breakdown overhaul, thus guaranteed the application system reliable operation. Each application system often adopts the same transmission media, so it can be used as standby and improve the standby redundancy.
(5) Advanced: Integrated wiring, the use of optical fiber and twisted-pair wiring, very reasonable form a complete set of wiring.
All wiring is the world's latest communication standards, links are eight-core twisted-pair configuration. 5-type twisted-pair cable bandwidth up to 100mhz,6-type twisted pair bandwidth up to 200MHz. For the needs of special users, the fiber can be led to the desktop (Fiber to the Desk). The Voice trunk part uses the cable, the data part uses the optical cables, provides the sufficient bandwidth capacity for simultaneously transmits the multiplex real-time multimedia information.
(6) Economic: integrated wiring than the traditional wiring has economic advantages, the main integrated wiring can adapt to a considerable amount of time, the traditional wiring transformation is time-consuming, delay the loss of work is not calculated with money.
Through the discussion above, with the rapid development of science and technology, the requirement of information resource sharing is more and more urgent, especially the communication network with the telephone service is gradually transferring to the integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN), and more and more attention can be paid to the simultaneous delivery of voice and Integrated communication network for data and video transmission. Therefore, the comprehensive wiring replaces the single, expensive, complex traditional wiring, is "the Information Age" the request, is the historical development inevitable trend.
Second, the integrated wiring system
Integrated wiring system should be open structure, should be able to support telephone and a variety of computer data systems, but also should be able to support the conference of television, television monitoring and other systems needs.
Integrated wiring system can be divided into six subsystems
Working area subsystem;
Wiring (horizontal) subsystem;
Trunk (vertical) subsystem;
subsystems between devices;
Design of intelligent building and intelligent building garden
Depending on the actual needs, the following three types of integrated market line systems may be selected:
(1) Basic type: Applicable to the general wiring system in the lower configuration standard occasions, with copper-core twisted cable network. Basic Cabling System configuration is as follows:
Each workspace has an information outlet;
The wiring cable of each work area is 1 pairs of 4 pair twisted cable;
Adopt the Clamp type handover hardware;
There are at least 1 pairs of twisted pairs of trunk cables per working area.
(2) Enhanced type: Applicable to the general wiring system in the medium configuration standard occasions, with copper-core twisted cable network. The enhanced integrated cabling system is configured as follows:
Each workspace has 2 or more information outlets;
The wiring cable for each work area is 2 pairs of 4 pairs of twisted pair cables;
Adopt clamp type or plug and transfer hardware;
There are at least 2 pairs of twisted pairs of trunk cables per working area.
(3) Comprehensive, suitable for the distribution system in the configuration of high standard occasions, with cable and copper-core twisted-pair cable mix network. Integrated Cabling system configuration should be based on the basic and enhanced integrated cabling system on the basis of additional optical cable system.
The integrated wiring system should be able to meet the transmission rate requirements of the supported data system, and should select the appropriate level of cable and transmission equipment.
The integrated wiring system should be able to meet the transmission standard requirements of the telephone, data and television systems supported.
The classification and transmission distance limits of the integrated wiring system shall conform to the provisions set out in table 1.
Note: The ①100m distance includes 10m allowable total length for connecting cords/jumps, work area and equipment area wiring, technical condition of the link according to 90m horizontal cable, 7. 5m length connection cable and similar 3 connectors are considered. If an integrated work and equipment area cable is used, the total length is not greater than 7. 5m, the use of this type is valid.
②3000m is the limit of the international standard scope, not the transmission media limit.
③ when the distance is greater than the length 100m in the horizontal cable subsystem, a feasible application standard should be negotiated.
④ System grade E is not listed in the table because it has not been formally introduced. However, as the D-level E and E levels have been applied extensively in the market, the indicators are listed in the following tables for informational purposes only.
The network of integrated wiring system and the length limit of each section of cable shall conform to the requirements shown in Figure 1:
Integrated wiring system Engineering design, selected cable, cable, all kinds of connecting cables, jumper, and wiring equipment and other hardware facilities, should comply with ISO/IEC 11801:1995 (E) international standards of the provisions to ensure that the system indicators are implemented.
The integrated and line system should be set up the computer information management system of Chinese display. Manual login and cabling system related to the work status information of the hardware facilities, such as: the use of equipment and cables and the use of the Department, the composition of the LAN topology, transmission information rate, terminal equipment configuration, occupation of hardware number and color standard, link function and the main characteristics of the parameters, Link's good condition and fault record. You should also log in to the device location and cable alignment content as well as the building name, location, area code, floor number, and room number.
at System design time, the system-wide selection of cables, connection hardware, jumpers, connectors, and so on must match the selected category. If shielding measures are adopted, the whole system must be designed according to shielding.
Third, system indicators
The maximum attenuation limit of the link transmission of the integrated cabling system, including the connection hardware, jumper and working area connection cable at both ends, should conform to table 2:
Note: When the points are required to be connected to a curve, the curve of the test should be within the limits of the standard curve.
The near-end crosstalk attenuation limits for any two-line pairs of the integrated cabling system, including the connection hardware at both ends, jumper and the working Area Connection cable (but excluding the device connector), should conform to table 3:
Note: The noise of all other sound sources should be 10dB lower than the crosstalk noise of all ① frequencies.
② in most backbone cables, the near-end crosstalk attenuation value of the worst line pair should be measured in terms of the cumulative power number.
③ Bridge Fork or multiple combination cables, and cables connected to multiple information outlets, the near-end crosstalk attenuation between any symmetrical cable group or unit is at least as much as the near-end crosstalk attenuation of a single combination of 4 pairs of cables. A value δ.
Δ=6DB+10LG (n+1) DB
In-type: n is the number of symmetrical cable for non-fiber in cable
The reflection attenuation limit value of any cable interface in the integrated wiring system shall conform to the provisions of table 4:
The ratio of the link attenuation to the near-end Crosstalk (ACR) in the integrated cabling system should conform to table 5:
Note: ①ACR (db) =an (db)-A (DB)
an--: The near-end crosstalk attenuation value of arbitrary two-line pairs
Attenuation value of a--link transmission
② the ACR values listed in this table are superior to the calculated values and allow a limited trade-off between attenuation and crosstalk attenuation, and the selection is as shown in table 6.
The DC loop resistance limit value of the integrated wiring system line pair shall conform to table 7 when the system classification and transmission distance are specified in table 1:
Note: The DC-loop resistance value of ①100ω twisted cable should be 19. 2ω/100m;
The DC-loop resistance value of ②150ω twisted cable should be 12ω/100m.
The propagation delay limit value of the integrated cabling system line pair shall conform to the provisions of table 8:
Note: The maximum propagation delay in the wiring (horizontal) subsystem shall not exceed lμs.
The longitudinal differential conversion attenuation (equilibrium) limit of the integrated wiring system shall conform to the provisions in table 9:
Note: The longitudinal differential conversion attenuation test method is being studied.
The combined near-end crosstalk (power sum) limit for the adjacent lines of the integrated cabling system should conform to table 10:
The value of the adjacent line to the composite near-end crosstalk (power sum) is near-end crosstalk of the sum of 3 transmitting lines to the other adjacent receiving line on one side of the 4 pairs of twisted wires.
N4=? N12+n22+n32,n1,n2,n3 the near-end crosstalk of line pair 1, line pair 2, line to 3 pair line to 4 respectively
The limit value of the elfext of the general cabling system should conform to the provisions of table 11;
The equivalent distal crosstalk loss elfext means the distal crosstalk loss and the line transmission attenuation difference.
From a link near the end of a line to send a signal, the signal through the line attenuation, from the link to the remote interference adjacent to the receiving line, the definition of the remote crosstalk value of Fext,fext is the length of the link (transmission attenuation) and the amount of change.
Definition: Elfext=fext-a (A for transmission attenuation by crosstalk wiring pairs)
The total Pselfext limit value of the distal equivalent crosstalk of the integrated wiring should conform to the provisions of table 12;
The delay value of the line pair with the lowest signal propagation delay in the same cable is used as the parameter, and the delay difference between the remaining line pair and the parameter line must not exceed 45ns. The data frame structure is badly damaged when the line pair time lag is over this value, and the data signal is transmitted simultaneously by 4 lines in the link high-speed transmission data.
The minimum return loss value of the integrated wiring should conform to the provisions of table 13;
The return loss is the result of the power reflection caused by the cable characteristic impedance and the link connector deviating from the standard value. RC is the difference between the amplitude of the input signal and the amplitude of the signal that is reflected back by the link.
Integrated wiring link pulse noise level by the high power equipment intermittent start on the wiring link caused by electrical shock interference, integrated wiring link in the case of not connected to active devices and equipment, more than 200MV of pulse noise number of statistics, measuring 2 minutes to capture the number of pulse noise is not more than 10.
Noise of integrated wiring background noises
The noise level should be ≤-30db when the wiring link is not connected with the active equipment and equipment, which is caused by high-frequency interference, electromagnetic interference and frequency low amplitude interference of the General Electric apparatus.
Safety inspection of integrated wiring grounding system
When the integrated wiring system adopts shielding measures, it must have a good grounding system and conform to the following regulations:
(1) Protection ground grounding resistance value, the separate grounding body, should not be greater than 4 Ω, when the use of joint grounding, should not be greater than 1 Ω.
(2) When the shielding wiring system is used, all shielding layers should be kept continuous.
(3) The use of shielding integrated wiring system, the shielding layer of the wiring equipment (FD or BD) end must be good grounding, the client (terminal equipment) depending on the specific circumstances of grounding, the two ends of the grounding should be connected to the same grounding body. If there are two different grounding systems in the grounding system, the difference of grounding power should not be greater than 1VR.M.S (valid value)
(4) The use of shielding wiring system, each floor of the wiring cabinets should be the appropriate cross-section of copper wire to the grounding of the individual wiring, can also be used in the shaft centralized copper or coarse copper wire to the grounding, wire or copper conductor cross-section should conform to the standard. The grounding conductor bell into a tree-like grounding net to avoid forming a DC loop.
(5) Integrated wiring of the cable using metal channels or steel pipe laying, channel or steel pipe should maintain continuous electrical connection, and at both ends should be good grounding.
(6) Shielding cable shielding layer grounding both ends of the measurement link shielding line, shielding layer and the grounding current difference between the two ≤5v.
The parameters of the wavelength window of the integrated cabling system should conform to the provisions of table 14:
Note: ① multimode fiber: Core wire nominal diameter is 62. 5/125μm or 50/125μm;
The maximum attenuation at 850nm wavelength is 3. 5db/km, the minimum mode bandwidth is 200MHzkm;
The maximum attenuation of the 1300nm wavelength is ldb/km, and the minimum mode bandwidth is 500MHzkm.
② Single mode fiber: Core wire should conform to iec793-2, model BI and ITU-T G. 652 standard;
The maximum attenuation is ldb/km at 1310nm and 1550nm wavelength, and the cut-off wavelength should be less than 1280nm;
The dispersion should be ≤6ps/km at 1310nm. The dispersion should be ≤20ps/km when nm;1550nm. Nm
③ Fiber-Optic connection hardware: Maximum attenuation 0. 5dB minimum Reflection attenuation: multimode 20dB, single mode 26dB.
Integrated wiring system of optical cables, in table 14 under the conditions of each parameter, fiber link can allow the maximum transmission distance, should conform to table 15 requirements:
Note: The link length specified in the ① table is in use in accordance with table 10. 13 provides the maximum distance allowed under the condition that the optical cable and the optical fiber connect the hardware.
② for short range applications, the optical attenuator should be inserted to ensure that the attenuation value specified in the table is reached.
The minimum optical mode bandwidth of the multimode fiber link in the integrated cabling system should conform to table 16:
Table 16 Optical Mode bandwidth table for Multimode fiber links
Note: Optical mode bandwidth of single-mode fiber link, ISO/IEC 11801:1995 (E) has not yet been stipulated.
The optical reflection attenuation limit of any interface of the fiber link of the integrated wiring system shall conform to the provisions of Table 17:
The connection between cabling and equipment in a cabling system should pay attention to impedance matching and balance and imbalance conversion adaptation. The classification of characteristic impedance should conform to the standard of 100ω and 150ω, and its allowable deviation value is ±15ω (suitable for frequency >1mhz).
General Wiring Test Connection method definition
Horizontal Cabling Test Connection method
(1) Basic link mode (fundamental link)
This is the connection method used by the engineering contractor. The method includes: Maximum 90m of end-to-end fixed connecting horizontal cable and connectors at end: One end is the work area information outlet, the other end is the floor wiring frame, jumper board socket and two 2m long test line connecting the two ends connectors. The basic link mode is shown in Figure 2
(2) Permanent link mode (permanent link)
Permanent link mode for installation personnel and data telecommunications users to authenticate the performance of the permanent installation cable, the future will replace the basic link mode. The permanent link channel consists of a 90m horizontal cable and 1 connectors, plus 1 optional transfer/sink connectors, if necessary. The permanent link configuration does not include the field tester plugged in cords and plugs. As shown in Figure 3.
(3) Channel link mode (Channel)
Channel link user connection method, which verifies the performance of the whole channel including the user terminal cable.
The channel connection includes: the longest 90m horizontal cable, an information outlet, an optional ancillary transfer connector near the workspace, two connection jumpers and user terminal connectors on the jumper racks between floor wiring, and no longer than 1OOm (the connector on both ends of the device is not included in the channel definition). The channel link mode is shown in Figure 4.
In the actual test, select which connection mode should be determined according to the actual situation, engineering acceptance Test 6 of the following recommendations to select the basic link mode, because previously required data is the basic link data, 6 types of above the use of Permanent link mode, and Channel link mode is connected to the network device after the test method, Is the test method that truly reflects the transmission link situation.
4 Horizontal Cabling Cable test Connection mode
Horizontal cabling The cable test connection mode as shown in Figure 5.
Trunk wiring in buildings
When the main trunk line in the building uses a large logarithmic symmetrical cable less than 90m, it can be tested by the basic, permanent and channel link mode of the horizontal wiring test.
The main trunk line in the building using Single-mode, multimode optical cable wiring can be used horizontal cabling cable test connection.
The main wiring test starting point for the building is the floor distribution frame, the test endpoint for the building telephone and computer network building total distribution frame.
Iv. Working Area Subsystem
An independent need to set up a terminal area should be divided into a work area, the work area subsystem should be wiring (horizontal) cabling System information outlets, extended to the workstation terminals at the connection cable and adapter components. As shown in Figure 6. The service area of a workspace can be estimated by 5~10m2, each workspace set up a telephone or computer terminal device, or set according to user requirements.
Each information outlet in the workspace should support the setting up and installation of telephones, data terminals, computers, televisions and monitors.
The selection of work Ameri adapter meets the following requirements:
A special cable or adapter may be used for connectors with different information outlets at the device connector;
When the ISDN service is opened on a single information outlet, it is advisable to use the network terminal adapter.
The cable category (media) selected in the wiring (horizontal) subsystem is different from the work area subsystem of Figure 6
The type of cable required for the equipment (media), the adapter should be used;
Adapters should be used when connecting the corresponding devices, such as digital-analog conversion or data rate conversion using different signals;
For the compatibility of network procedures, can be used with adapters;
The corresponding terminal adapters can be equipped according to different telecommunication terminals in the working area.
Five, wiring (horizontal) subsystem
Wiring subsystem should be used in the work area of the information outlets, each layer of wiring equipment to the information outlet wiring cable, floor wiring equipment and jumper components. As shown in Figure 7.
Fig. 7 wiring (horizontal) subsystem
The wiring subsystem should be designed according to the following requirements:
According to the project, the short-term and long-term terminal equipment requirements are proposed;
The number and location of information outlets that need to be installed on each floor;
Details of the future movement, modification and rescheduling of the terminal may occur;
Comparison of one-off construction and phased construction schemes.
It is advisable to use 4 pairs of twisted pair cable in the wiring subsystem. Wiring subsystem in the case of high-speed application, it is advisable to use optical cable. According to the requirements of the whole cabling system, the wiring subsystem should be connected to the wiring equipment between the two-level handover, handover or equipment to form the telephone, data and TV system and manage it.
It is advisable to select common copper-core twisted cable for wiring cable.
The information outlet of the integrated wiring system should be selected according to the following principles:
① Single connected 8-core sockets are suitable for basic systems;
② Dual connected 8-core sockets should be used for enhanced systems;
A given integrated wiring system can be designed with multiple types of information outlets.
Wiring subsystem cable length should be within 90m.
The information outlet should make a fixed line connection inside.
Vi. Trunk (vertical) subsystem
The trunk subsystem shall consist of wiring equipment between the equipment and jumper and connecting cables between the equipment and the floor wiring.
The principle of sharing the cable voice and data signal must be determined before determining the total number of cables needed for the trunk subsystem. For the basic type each workspace can be selected 1 pairs, for the enhanced each workspace can be selected 2 pairs of twisted pair, for the integrated work area can be based on the basic and enhanced optical cable system.
You should choose the shortest, safest and most economical route for the trunk cable. It is advisable to select a closed channel with a door for laying trunk cable.
The trunk cable can be point-to-point end-to-end, or it can take a branch-descending termination and a cable direct connection method.
If the equipment is in a different location from the computer room, and need to connect the voice cable to the equipment, the data cable to the computer room, it is advisable to choose different trunk cable or trunk cable in the design of different parts to meet the different routes (vertical) subsystem voice and data needs. When needed, can also be used to meet the optical cable system.
VII. subsystem of equipment among devices
The equipment is located in the appropriate location of each building to set up line equipment, network management and management personnel on duty. The subsystem of the equipment should be composed of the building line equipment, telephone, data, computer and other main equipments and security wiring equipment of the integrated wiring system.
All incoming terminals in the equipment should use color standard to distinguish the wiring area of various uses.
Equipment between the location and size according to the number of equipment, size, the best network Center and other content, comprehensive consideration to determine.
VIII. Management Subsystem
The management subsystem is set up in the room of each layer of wiring equipment. The management subsystem should be composed of wiring equipment, input/output equipment between the handover. The management subsystem can also be applied to subsystems between devices.
Management subsystem should adopt single point management double handover. The structure of the junction field depends on the working area, the scale of the integrated cabling system and the hardware selected. In the management of large-scale, complex, there are two-level handover between the two-point management set up double handover. At the management point, it is advisable to use the tag insertion bar to mark each end of the field according to the application environment.
The junction area should have a good marking system, such as building name, building location, area code, starting point and function.
The wiring between the handover and the two-level junction should be used to distinguish the wiring area of various uses.
The choice of connection mode of handover equipment should conform to the following regulations: When the line on the floor is less modified, shifted or reassembled, it is advisable to use the clamp wiring method; Use the plug connection method when you need to reorganize the line frequently.
Space should be left between the junction fields in order to accommodate the future expansion of the handover hardware.
Ix. the subsystems of the complex
The architectural complex subsystem consists of two and more than two buildings of telephone, data and television systems comprising a complex cabling system comprising cabling and wiring equipment (CDS) connecting the buildings to form a complex subsystem.
It is advisable to use underground piping to lay the complex subsystem. Copper cables or optical cables laid in the piping shall follow the design requirements for telephone piping and entry holes. In addition, the installation should be reserved at least 1~2 a spare pipe hole for expansion purposes.
When the system of building blocks is laid in a direct buried ditch, if the other images and monitoring cables are embedded in the same ditch, an obvious common sign should be set up.
The cable from the telephone shall be entered into a fire-retardant connector box and then to the protective device.
X. Optical Cable Transmission System
When the integrated wiring system needs to lay a long distance line between a complex, or if the information system in the building requires the formation of a high-speed network, or with other networks in particular with the power cable network to lay with the requirements of electromagnetic interference, it is advisable to use optical cable as transmission media. Optical fiber transmission system should be able to meet the building and complex environment for telephone, data, computer, television and other integrated transmission requirements, when used in computer local area network, it is advisable to use multimode optical cable; As a part of long-distance telecommunications network should be used as a single mode cable.
Integrated wiring system of the handover of hardware using optical cable components, the equipment can be used as the main optical cable junction site set up. Trunk cable from the focus of the terminal and import and export points to extend to other floors, in each floor through the cable-level connectors along the horizontal direction of distribution of optical cables.
Optical cable transmission system should use standard unit cable connector, connector can be connected to the optical cable junction unit, ceramic head connection should ensure that each connection point attenuation is not less than 0.4dB. The connector of the plastic head has a attenuation of less than 0.5dB for each connection point.
Integrated wiring system should adopt optical fiber diameter 62.5μm fiber cladding diameter 125μm of slow-change enhanced multimode fiber optic cable, nominal wavelength of 850nm or 1300nm, also can use nominal wavelength of 1310nm or 1550nm single-mode optical cable.
The digital serial bit rate and the digital interface characteristic of the digital transmission system of optical cable should conform to the following series of regulations:
(1) The PDH digit series bit rate level should conform to the provisions of the national standard gb4110-83 "pulse coded modulation communication System Series", as shown in table 18.
(2) The bit rate deviation of digital interface, pulse waveform characteristic, code type, import and export specification, etc., should conform to national standard gb7611-87 "Pulse Code modulation Communication System Network Digital Interface parameter" stipulation.
The optical cable transmission system should adopt loose sleeve type or skeleton type fiber bundle cable, also can use ribbon fiber optic cable.
Optical cable transmission system, standard optical cable Connection device hardware handover equipment, in addition to support connectors, should also directly support the beam and cable and cross-wiring cable.
A variety of optical cables should be used in conjunction with the General Optical cable box for the bundle of optical cables, ribbon cable or across the junction of cables to provide a reliable connection and protection of the shell. Universal Optical Cable Box provides the optical cable entrance should be able to accommodate multiple building cable.
Xi. power supply, protection and grounding
1. Power supply
(1) in the equipment between the installation of computer host, should be in accordance with the computer host power requirements for engineering design.
(2) in the equipment between the installation of program-controlled user switches should be in accordance with the "Industrial Enterprise Program control user switch Design code" CECs 09:89 to design.
(3) equipment, handover between the use of reliable AC 220V, 50Hz power supply.
2. Electrical protection and grounding
(1) The integrated wiring network should take protective measures when the following conditions are met:
A the following sources of interference exist within the building and cannot be maintained at a safe interval:
High frequency interference caused by distribution box and distribution network;
Harmonic interference caused by electric spark of high power motor;
Fluorescent tubes, electronic starter;
The ringing current of the telephone network;
Periodic pulses generated by information processing equipment.
b The following sources of interference exist outside the building and are in an environment of high electromagnetic field strength:
Radio transmitting equipment;
Mobile phone base station;
High voltage wire;
Lightning strike area.
C Ambient interference signal field strength or integrated wiring system noise level exceeding the following provisions:
For the computer LAN, the interference signal of 10khz~600mhz is introduced, and its field strength is 1v/m;600mhz to 80MHz, and its field strength is 5v/m.
For telecommunication terminal equipment, the interference signal of Rfo.15mhz to 80MHz is introduced through the introduction line of signal, DC or AC, and its field intensity is 3V (amplitude modulation 80%,1khz).
For terminal equipment with analog/digital terminal interface, the noise signal level should conform to table 19 in the provision of telephone service:
Table 19 noise signal level limit table
Note: The total bandwidth of the noise level exceeding -40dbm should be less than 200MHz.
When the terminal equipment provides the acoustic interface service, the noise signal level should conform to table 20:
Table 20 noise signal level limit table
Note: The total bandwidth of the ① noise level exceeding the reference level should be less than 200MHz.
② the characteristic of the reference level: the sine signal of the 1khz~40dbm.
Additional requirements for the primary access device for ISDN, the number of frame lines lost should be less than 10 within the 10-second test cycle.
Background noise should be at least smaller than the benchmark level -12db.
d The electric field intensity of the emission jamming wave of the integrated cabling system exceeds the Regulation of table 21:
Table 21 emission interference wave electric field strength limit table
Note; ①a equipment: Tertiary industry; Class B Equipment: Residential.
② lower limits apply to lower frequencies.
(2) The spacing between the integrated wiring system and other interference sources should conform to the requirements of table 22:
Table 22 Spacing table with other sources of interference
Note: ① both sides are in the grounding of the groove, and the parallel length ≤ 10 o'clock, the minimum spacing can be 1cm.
② telephone users with ringing current, can not be used with the computer in the future of the same twisted cable.
③ Cabling system should be selected according to the environmental conditions of the corresponding cable and wiring equipment, should meet the following requirements:
A a variety of cable and wiring equipment anti-interference ability, the use of shielded integrated wiring system can reduce the average noise 20dB.
b The selection principle of various cables and wiring equipment should meet the following requirements:
When the ambient interference field intensity or the integrated wiring system noise level below the table 19, can be used UTP cable system and unshielded wiring equipment, this is the main cable twisted wire products.
When the ambient interference field intensity or the integrated wiring system noise level above 19, the interference source signal or computer network signal frequency is greater than or equal to 30MHz, should be in accordance with its more than the standard level of size, respectively, FTP, SFTP, STP and other shielding cable systems and shielding wiring equipment. In addition, when the spacing required in table 22 is not guaranteed, appropriate protection measures should be taken.
When the interference field of the surrounding environment is very high, the use of the shielding system can not meet the requirements of the standard, should use optical cable system.
When the user to the system has confidentiality requirements, do not allow the signal to launch, or the system launch index can not meet the provisions of table 21, should be shielded cable and shielding wiring equipment, or optical cable systems.
(3) When the integrated wiring system adopts shielding measures, it should have a good grounding system and comply with the following provisions:
The grounding resistance value of the protective ground wire shall not be greater than 4 Ω when the grounding body is individually set, and shall not be greater than 1 ω when the joint grounding body is used.
All the shielding layers of the integrated wiring system should be kept continuous, and the relative position of the conductor should be ensured.
Shielding layer of the wiring equipment (FD or BD) end should be grounded, the user (terminal equipment) depending on the specific circumstances should be grounded, both ends of the grounding should try to connect the same grounding body. If there are two different grounding bodies in the system, their grounding potential difference should not be greater than 1VR.M.S.
(3) Each floor of the wiring cabinet should be routed to the ground alone, the choice of grounding wire should conform to table 23 provisions.
Table 23 grounding Conductor Selection table
(5) The grounding of the information socket can be connected to the wiring cabinet of each floor by the cable shielding layer. Workstation of the shell grounding should be connected to the grounding of the individual wiring, a few workstations in the office can be used for the same grounding wire, should be selected section is not less than 2.5mm2 insulated copper wire.
(6) Integrated wiring of the cable using metal channels or steel pipe laying, channel or steel pipe should maintain continuous electrical connection, and at both ends should be good grounding.
(7) The position of the trunk cable should be close to the vertical ground conductor (for example, the structure of the building) and in the Network center of the building as far as possible.
(8) When the cable from outside the building into the interior of the building is susceptible to lightning, power to touch the ground, the power of the inductive potential or the ground potential of the external impact, must adopt a protective device.
(9) In any of the following cases, the circuit is in a dangerous environment, should be over the pressure of overcurrent protection.
The dangerous effect caused by lightning;
Working voltage exceeding 250V power line touch ground;
The power failure caused by the ground potential rising above 250V;
AC 50Hz induction voltage over 250V.
(10) It is advisable to choose a gas discharge tube protector for the overvoltage protection of the integrated wiring system.
(11) Overcurrent protection is suitable for the use of self-recovery protector.
(12) The cable or copper cables placed in the flammable area or in the shaft of the building must have flame retardant sheath; When the cables are placed in an nonflammable pipe, or when each floor is used for fire insulation, there can be no flame retardant sheath.
(13) The cathode or shell of the source equipment of the integrated wiring system, cable shielding layer and connected grounding wire should be grounded, it is advisable to use joint grounding method, as the layer has lightning-prevention belt and the average pressure network (above 30m each layer is set) should be connected with this, so that the whole building grounding system composed of a cage-type pressure body.
3. Environmental protection
In flammable areas and building shafts in the distribution of cables or optical cables, it is advisable to use fire and anti-virus cables, the adjacent equipment should be used fire-retardant wiring equipment. For steel pipe cable or optical cable can be used in general external sheath.
The network composed of the integrated wiring system should prevent electromagnetic pollution caused by RF, and affect the normal operation of other networks around.
10.5.12 Installation Process Requirements
1. Equipment Room
(1) The design of the equipment shall conform to the following provisions:
The equipment should be in the middle position of the best network in the main line complex;
The equipment should be as close as possible to the building cable inlet and network interface. The mutual spacing between the cable inlet and the network interface should be ≤15m;
The position between the equipment should be convenient for the grounding device installation;
Room temperature should be maintained between the 10℃~ 27 ℃, relative humidity should be maintained 30%~80%.
Equipment should be installed in accordance with the requirements of the fire protection system, should use fire anti-theft door, at least 1 hours of fire-resistant firewall;
There is enough space for all the equipment in the equipment room, including: program-controlled Digital subscriber telephone exchange, computer mainframe, the entire building of the handover equipment.
(2) equipment between the interior decoration, air-conditioning equipment systems and electrical lighting installation should be carried out before the installed. Equipment between the decoration should meet the process requirements, economic application. Large capacity of the room can be combined with air-conditioning under the air supply, cable and anti-static, and other requirements, set up the activity floor.
(4) The equipment should prevent harmful gases (such as SO2, H2S, NH3, NO2, etc.) intrusion, and should be good dustproof measures, allow the dust content limit can be seen in table 24 of the provisions.
Note: Dust particles should be non-conductive, not ferromagnetic, and not corrosive.
(4) At least for the equipment between the floor to provide 2.55m height of space, the height of the door should be greater than 2.l m, the door width should be greater than 90cm, the floor of the equivalent uniform load should be greater than 5kn/m2. Where the integrated wiring hardware is installed, the walls and ceiling should be coated with flame retardant paint.
(5) The general lighting between the equipment, the minimum illuminance standard should be 150IX, the specified illuminance is face to face, horizontal illuminance refers to the ground 0.8m, vertical surface illuminance refers to the ground 1.4m from the provisions.
2. Handover Room
(1) Determine the number of trunk channels and handover, should be considered from the available floor space to be serviced. If the information outlets to serve on a given floor are within 75m range, it is advisable to use a single trunk wiring system. Where beyond this range, can use two or more channels of the trunk system, can also be used through the branch cable and the main link between the junction of the two-class junction.
(2) The area should not be less than 10m2 when the junction between the main trunk and the equipment. The area of the junction between the main lines can be considered according to the 7~8-fold distribution cabinet area.
Wiring equipment to the wall installation of the trunk junction between the area of 1.8m2 (1.2mx1.5m) can accommodate the end of the 200 workspaces required for the connection of hardware and other equipment. If the end of the work area of more than 200, then add 1 or more two-level junction in the floor, its setting requirements should conform to table 25, the table area is according to the wiring equipment fixed wall area required, or can be determined according to the design needs.
Table 25 The Setup table between the handover
Note: A maximum of 2 two-level handover rooms can be supported at any one junction.
Table 10.28 is suitable for wiring equipment fixed wall area required, such as the use of 19 "standard cabinet or wiring frame, the required area of about 19" standard cabinet or rack covers an area of 7~8 times.
Wiring subsystem cable in the floor under the installation method, according to the environmental conditions of the floor under the bridge wiring method, honeycomb floor wiring method, elevated (activity) floor wiring method, the floor of the pipeline wiring method, such as four kinds of installation methods.
Wiring subsystem cable should be through the steel pipe or along the metal cable bridge laying, and should choose the shortest Czech path.
There are three ways to choose the vertical channel of the main trunk line, such as Cable hole, pipeline and cable shaft, and the cable hole method should be adopted. The horizontal channel can choose the way of piping or cable tray.
A pipe should be worn to set up a comprehensive wiring cable. When the tube is in the enlarged logarithmic cable, the pipe diameter utilization rate of the line pipe should be 50%~ 60%, and the pipe diameter utilization ratio of the curved pipeline should be 40%~ 50%. When the pipe is put on 4 pairs of twisted cable, the section utilization rate should be 25%~ 30%.
Allow cabling cable, cable TV cable, fire alarm cable, monitor system cable to share metal cable tray, but separate from cable TV cable with metal partition.
The dark wiring in the building can generally be made of metal wiring material or plastic pipe. Because the metal wiring material has the shielding function, with the strong electricity (above 220V) pipeline parallel or crosses may reduce the spacing requirement, therefore is the most important way.
1. Standard CECS of China Engineering Construction Standardization Association 72:97 Revision of design provisions for integrated cabling system of buildings and buildings
2. Building Intelligent Industry Information 2000 Chinese version of the integrated wiring system foreign standards
3. Standard yd/t1013-1999 of communication industry of the People's Republic of China general cabling system-Generic test method for electrical characteristics