Increasingly popular wearable sensors: do you understand?

Source: Internet
Author: User

IHS expects that strong consumer demand for a wide range of wearable devices will increase sensor shipments in wearable devices, which is expected to grow seven times times in 2013-2019 years, with wearable sensors shipping at 67 million in 2013 and an estimated 85 million in 2014, Next year can grow by up to 1.75 One, 2019 shipments are estimated to be 466 million. And because the number of sensors in each wearable device is more than one, the type and function of the sensor can be varied, so the wearable sensor will grow much faster than wearable devices. In order to deepen our understanding of the various sensors used on wearable devices, specially designed wearable sensor special topic, take you into the colorful world of wearable sensors, understand the characteristics and applications of various wearable sensors, understand the main manufacturers of wearable sensors and their respective characteristics. At the same time, we also recommend the most popular wearable design scheme for everyone in the topic.

Wearable sensor classification
1. MEMS Motion Sensor

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Since 2008, MEMS sensors have been embedded in mobile phones, car, wearable, smart home and other electronic devices, technological progress is currently facing the problem is the lack of MEMS applications, that is what MEMS can do. This post makes a simple arrangement of the basic principles of MEMS devices and the application of MEMS devices in a wide variety of products.

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Acceleration Sensors and applications

Acceleration Sensor working principle with the spring analogy is easy to understand, the vibration of the spring has a narrowing extension distance will be changed, the two ends of the equivalent capacitance of two, distance conversion capacitor output is not the same. Of course, when we look at the acceleration sensor, its parameters the first is rage, the equivalent of the amount of the volume, the mobile phone is basically 2g, now the largest MEMS devices can be extended to 8g, used in a similar game handle, playing tennis even if the swing light can be detected, But if the 2g there is no way to recognize the hit near or far. Another parameter is the resolution, more applications to the mobile phone 12bit, and then the simple may be 6bit, such as the switch between the screen.

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The main application of the acceleration sensor, the first is a simple screen, the second is the flip application, the original rollover application is to shake the song with the screen, but the experience is not good many mobile phones do not have this function; The third is the pedometer application, 2010 when many mobile phones in Japan have been adopted, the technology is very mature, For example, take 500 steps, measured down is 499 or 501; the fourth is double-click function, set a time point of the middle lattice, the data for two interrupts, so the double-click is very accurate, such as hand ring or watch operation space is limited, you can use double-click to start an application; The fifth one is gesture recognition, Detect left and right tilt and tilt angle, for example, in the home interior decoration, used to take a moxian in the wall, now has a laser level, but the device can not be accurately placed horizontal level is flat, if the use of 4g resolution is 12bit acceleration sensor accuracy is very high.

The sixth application is anti-theft, when the device equipped with the sensor is picked up, the alarm will ring; the seventh is freefalldetection, for example, if the notebook is down, it may look bad, but the hard drive will not be bad, because there is an acceleration sensor, it will be detected in a moment, it will let the head away from the disk. The seventh one is to detect the vibration, when the washing machine pendulum is not right, when the vibration of the sound is very large, the sensor can detect the vibration frequency, to avoid the whole thing with the external resonance; the most typical game application is the handle, the body sense has a greater improvement.

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Principle and application of magnetometer

Magnetometer detects the Earth's magnetic field, the Earth's magnetic field is a relatively weak link in all magnetic fields, anything with iron craft, including some shielding in the cell phone, some connection keys including some slots will produce a magnetic field, these magnetic fields may be much larger than the Earth's magnetic field. About the application of the most magnetic device is the map direction, GPS can only judge the latitude and longitude, there is a magnetometer can know east. It also has applications in the home, such as adding a magnetometer to the door, which detects the angle of the door switch to determine if the door is locked. Of course, the magnetometer can also be located, because each point of the earth distribution is not the same.

There is an application is indoor positioning navigation, according to set the location of the target, through the magnetometer to determine in which direction you go, walking can judge you in the indoor walk to calculate the distance, but now not get the scale use, the first because the precise algorithm is to what extent, the second is the indoor map who to provide.

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The principle and application of air pressure gauge

The barometer is internally integrated with some height algorithms that can be used for height calculations. The most typical application is in three-dimensional GPS navigation. Now many cities have elevated, then you on the elevated or elevated, the accuracy of the barometer in 30cm is easy to solve the problem (viaduct height is greater than 7m). The barometer can also do weather forecasts. In fact, the weather forecast is basically predicted by the cumulative changes, you can know the future weather changes for a longer period of time.

Touch sensors

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Freescale MPR121 's products can be used to unlock keys directly. For example, mobile phone screen to make a mobile phone cover, there are different buttons on the condom, can be connected to the mobile phone through the button, this application is very interesting. You can also do some perceptual applications, which is equivalent to simply opening the keyboard when the light is bad or there is no way to see it clearly.

Wide range of sensor applications

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Freescale's wearable approach has an application equivalent to BLESOC plus pedometer algorithms, such as the MMA9555 integration of all pedometer algorithms (including algorithms like gesture recognition). The advantage is that the pedometer can further identify your walk, run, and jog, and can calculate how much calories you have. And at any time things have interaction to be happy, such as the circle of Friends of the PK sports mileage. Freescale can develop more applications through the integration of various sensor types and some of the algorithms associated with the sensor, and then the bracelet product will bring more display, so Freescale will have a number of products.

Sensor technology in mobile phones, wearable and a variety of electronic devices, the use of more and more, followed by long standby and power consumption problems. If the entire CPU of the mobile phone to do sensor calculation, it's running is very large, need independent coprocessor Sensorhub. And Freescale understands the processor and also does the MCU which is the biggest advantage.
Main functions: Motion monitoring, navigation, entertainment, human-computer interaction
Domestic sensor Company: United States New Semiconductor, Ming 皜 sensing, silicon core technology, deep di Semiconductor, LAN microelectronics, sensitive core microelectronics, etc.

Typical devices: Nike + FuelBand, Jawbone up, Fitbit Flex, plump bracelet, Pebble, Geak Watch, Inwatch, Galaxy Gear
Life is movement, and movement is an indispensable part of life. Therefore, it is of great value to measure, record and analyze the activity of the human body through motion sensors: the user can know the number of running steps, number of laps, distance of bicycle, energy consumption and sleep time, etc. Figure 2 is the development of wearable devices based on motion sensors, from simple pedometer to sophisticated smart watches, sensor usage "growing", motion monitoring "excellence".

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Development history of wearable devices based on motion sensor
2. Bio-sensor

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Biosensor: Blood glucose sensor, blood pressure sensor, ECG sensor, EMG sensor, body temperature sensor, EEG sensor, etc.
Features: Health and medical monitoring, entertainment
Domestic sensor companies: God read technology, sensitive core microelectronics, core-sensitive micro-systems, nano-core microelectronics, etc.
Typical equipment: cardionet mcot, Kankan blood pressure, Zhongwei Lycoming provides-wrist ECG monitor, iholter (reassuring treasure), Secret mind Cat Ear
Health early warning, disease monitoring-with wearable technology, physicians can improve diagnostic levels and families can communicate better with patients. With Kankan blood pressure as the representative of wearable medical equipment, in cooperation with professional medical institutions, long-term log with tens of millions of user body data tracking and monitoring, analysis and extraction of medical diagnostic model, predict and shape the health of users, to provide users with personalized cardiovascular special medical and health Management program, It also helps the family to care for the health of their loved ones.

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Kankan blood pressure--intelligent blood pressure monitor with temperature
In addition, the wearable device, which is represented by the secret idea Cat's ear, realizes the entertainment interaction through sensors such as EEG and ECG to perceive the change of human emotion. For example, in a TV dating activity, when a female guest sees a favorite object, the brain is in a state of high interest, the cat's ears will be high up and rotate back and forth, to express their affection.

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Secret idea Cat ear--Read the girl's mind

3. Environmental sensors

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Environmental sensors: temperature and humidity sensors, gas sensors, ph sensors, UV sensors, ambient light sensors, particulate matter sensors, barometric sensors, microphones, etc.
Function: Environmental monitoring, weather forecast, health alert
Domestic sensor companies: Konsensk Electronics, Wei Sheng Electronics, the Department of Microelectronics, the core of the morning science and technology, sensitive core microelectronics, core AO Micro-sensing, etc.
Typical equipment: PM2.5 portable detector, airwaves mask, portable personal integrated environmental monitoring terminal
Environmental monitoring, guarding health. Maslow's theory divides the human needs into five kinds, like ladder from low to high, ascending step by level, respectively: the need of physiology, the need of safety, the need of affection, the need of respect and the need of self-realization. Now the physical needs are generally satisfied, followed by the need for security, that is, to ensure that physical and mental health is not threatened. In fact, people are often in a situation where health is a threat, such as air/water pollution, noise/light pollution, electromagnetic radiation, extreme weather and so on. What is more frightening is that many times we are in such an environment without knowing, such as PM2.5 pollution, which causes a variety of chronic diseases. With this market opportunity, the start-up company Plume technology uses particulate matter sensors to launch the smallest and lightest air quality detection device--pm2.5 portable detector on the market today. The tester can be worn on the human body, can be displayed separately, can also be used in combination with mobile phone and share to friends.

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PM2.5 Portable measuring instrument
Health = genetics + living Habits + environment
The needs of wearable devices in China's health care sector are based on: (1) China's growing ageing trend (6), elderly people living alone, rising human costs are the basis for wearable medical device growth. (2) The chronic disease is younger, the disease time is long, the demand is big. (3) China's serious shortage of medical resources, doctors and patients imbalance, through the wearable devices personalized health management, reduce the number of visits. Figures 7 and 8 are the main health problems for men and women in China, with data from the second Chinese Urban Health survey.

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Figure 6 Elderly growth and the proportion of the elderly in the total population

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Fig. 7 main problems of male health

There are three main factors influencing human health: genetics, living habits and the environment, the formula: "health = gene + living habits + environment". Usually the gene is "predestined", cannot change, namely the constant, but the health, the life habit can change, the environment also can "evade", all is the variable. For "variable" health, lifestyle and environment, wearable devices can monitor and alert users individually through biosensors, motion sensors, and environmental sensors to improve human health and improve quality of life, and a large number of user clinical data has significant commercial and social value.
However, nowadays wearable devices in the market often use only a class of sensors to realize a variable monitoring function, which makes it difficult to achieve a comprehensive and effective health feedback system. Therefore, the integration of a variety of sensors innovative applications by the market expectations. For example: biosensor "Monitoring" to the human blood pressure, high blood lipids, warning users should change their bad habits, strengthen physical exercise; then, the motion sensor is responsible for "supervising" the daily exercise of the human body, the environment sensor is responsible for "monitoring" the human body around the environment (if there is no smoking and environmental pollution); Cardiovascular disease is well controlled by the effective coordination of the three types of sensors. Reasonable chronic disease management can avoid the emergency and hospitalization, reduce the number of visits, save costs and labor costs. Clinical research on the effects of mobile medical services worldwide shows that remote monitoring after discharge can reduce the cost of medical care for patients, prolong the interval between doctor visits, and reduce hospitalization time, as shown in table 1.

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Personalised Healthcare with wearable devices
Clinical research on the effects of mobile medical services worldwide

Now, if you see someone wearing a Google Glass or Pebble smart watch on the street, people will look at it and think it's fresh. But in the field of research, researchers have already begun to develop the next generation of wearable devices, which surprises us with "electronic skin, smart contact lenses, ph capsules".

Major manufacturers of wearable sensors and their solutions
The advent of the Internet of Things society, the detection and output of unlimited access to human feelings and movements of information technology will become increasingly important, in the watch and glasses embedded sensors and video components such as MEMS devices wearable products, combined with the use of multiple sensors sensor fusion use, The use of Internet connection sensors to detect a variety of information and other uses in the future will have a lot of room for development. From motion detection, environmental awareness, and stress testing, MEMS solutions have penetrated all aspects of people's lives. With the development of wearable devices, the future of sensors to be more compact, but also to accelerate integration, MEMS technology will become more and more dominant, such as geomagnetic sensor needs and acceleration sensor integration.

Sensor Solutions Major Manufacturers

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1, Texas Instruments (TI)

Non-contact temperature measurement in portable consumer electronics applications. TMP006, based on TI's expertise in MEMS technology, is the first new ultra-small, low-power, low-cost passive infrared temperature sensor that consumes up to 90% less power than existing solutions and has a small size of more than 95%, enabling new markets and non-contact temperature measurement in applications.

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2. Analog-to-semiconductor (ADI)

As a pioneer in the micro-mechanical IC industry, Analog Devices, Inc. (ADI) launched the first fully integrated imems (MEMS) accelerometer and gyroscope. These products have been certified by TS-16949 and QS9000, and Adi will continue to improve its products and processes to meet the growing needs of its customers.
For more than more than 20 years, Adi has been a leader in MEMS innovations offering a comprehensive range of inertial sensing solutions including award-winning imems accelerometers and gyroscopes, isensor smart sensors, and inertial measurement units (IMU), while MEMS technology simplifies motion detection in industrial, Applications in many fields such as healthcare, consumer electronics, communications and automobiles are well received by leading global market companies.

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3. Maxim

The new Physical Signs monitor (FIT) enables healthcare professionals to monitor patient health at low cost and provide more effective preventative care. The new intelligent Monitor integrates the dry-electrode ECG measurement technology, complex signal processing technology, temperature sensor, motion sensor, ultra-low power microcontroller and wireless communication unit, in view of the low power consumption requirements of wearable devices, this design uses ultra-low-power MAXQ622, The MAX6656 is equipped with a power management IC MAX8671.

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4. Freescale (Freescale)

Freescale supports sensing technology with micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS-based sensor products provide an interface for sensing, processing, and even controlling the surrounding environment. Freescale's MEMS-based sensors combine very small mechanical and electronic components on a single chip. Freescale's MEMS device shipments have topped the 1 billion mark and are a leader in sensor technology, providing cost-effective, efficient, compact, high-performance, integrated sensing solutions.

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5, STMicroelectronics (ST)

ST's sensor products include MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical sensors including accelerometers, gyroscopes, digital compasses, inertial modules, pressure sensors and microphones), temperature sensors and touch sensors. By the beginning of 2013, STMicroelectronics had sold 30多亿件 miniature electromechanical sensors, leading the development of consumer and mobile MEMS markets.

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6. Silicon Labs

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The Silicon LABS2 Month introduces the industry's first monolithic digital UV (UV) index sensor IC designed to detect UV light intensity, heart/pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and proximity/gesture control, especially for smartphones and wearable products. Single-chip si1132/4x optical sensors provide UV strength, ambient light and biometric detection for smartphones and wearable products.

7 Bosch
Bosch Sensortec developed the latest BMI160 inertial measurement Unit (IMU) in 2014, incorporating state-of-the-art 16-bit 3-axis low-G and ultra-low-power 3-axis gyroscopes in a single package designed for smart phones, tablets, wearables, remote controls, High-precision 6-axis, 9-axis Perpetual-continuous (always-on) applications in the market for game controllers, head-mounted devices and toys. Main push: Acceleration sensor bma250e, BMA250, bma222e, BMA222, BMA223 and so on.

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Increasingly popular wearable sensors: do you understand?

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