Middle Note (v)

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--March 23, 2016

V. Progress management and cost management

I. Project SCHEDULE Management
1. What are the six processes involved in schedule management? Remember

(1) Definition of activity, (2) Activity sequencing, (3) Activity resource estimation, (4) Activity duration estimate, (5) Development schedule; (6) Progress control

2. What is rolling planning?

The Rolling planner plans to progressively refine a form of expression that is recently completed in the work breakdown structure at the bottom of the detailed planning, while the work of the WBS is planned in the long-term work, in the work breakdown structure of the higher-level planning.

3, what is the control account, planning portfolio?

Control accounts: The top management's control points can be located on the work breakdown structure work combination level above the selected management point (the specific component of the selected level). These control points are used as a basis for planning when the relevant work mix has not been planned. All work done and all efforts made within the control account are documented in a control account plan.

Planning mix: Is the part of the work breakdown structure that controls the account below in the work breakdown structure, but above the work mix. The purpose of this component is to plan known work content for non-detailed planning activities.

4, please explain the meaning of FS, FF, SS, SF.

FS: End-Begins the relationship. After the pre-order activity is finished, the follow-up activity can begin.

FF: End-to-end relationship. After the pre-order activity ends, the follow-up activities can be completed.

SS: Start-start relationship. After the pre-order activity begins, the follow-up activity can begin.

SF: Start-end relationship. After the start of the pre-order activity, the follow-up activities can end.

5, the meaning of virtual activities?

For the convenience of drawing, people introduce an extra, special activity called virtual activity. It does not consume time and is represented by a dashed arrow in the Network Diagram.

6. What are the three types of three dependency relationships?

(1) Mandatory dependency relationships, (2) discretionary dependencies; (3) external dependencies

7. Methods, tools and techniques for estimating activity resources? Remember

(1) Expert judgment, (2) Multi-programme analysis, (3) published estimate data, (4) project management software; (5) Bottom-up estimation

8. What are the methods, tools and techniques used to estimate the activity? Remember

(1) Expert judgment, (2) analogy estimation, (3) parameter estimation, (4) three point estimation; (5) Backup analysis

9. When can I use analogy estimation?

This approach is often used to estimate the duration of a project in the early stages of a project when the detailed information on the project is limited.

10. What is the meaning of parameter estimation?

The amount of work to be done multiplied by productivity can be used as a quantitative basis for estimating activity duration.

11, three points estimate formula? Standard deviation calculation formula? What is the probability of a standard deviation with or minus one? Twice times as much? 3 times times as much?

Three-point Estimation formula = (most optimistic diachronic estimate to+4 times the most probable duration estimate + Most pessimistic diachronic estimate TP)/6

Standard deviation formula = (most pessimistic diachronic estimate tp-most optimistic diachronic estimate to)/6

The probability is 68.26%, twice times the standard deviation is 95.46%, three times times is 99.73%.

12, backup analysis, emergency time = time Reserve = Buffer time?


13. Which activity's output is the resource calendar? Which activity is entered?

The resource calendar is the input of the activity duration estimate, and the output of the activity resource estimate

14. What are the major technologies and tools used in the development of the schedule? Remember

(1) Schedule network analysis, (2) Key route method, (3) Progress compression, (4) Hypothetical scenario analysis, (5) resource balance, (6) Key Chain Law, (7) Project management software, (8) Application calendar, (9) Time-delay and latency adjustment, and (10) Schedule model

15, the key route method, if the total time difference is negative, how do you deal with it?

In order for the route total time difference to be zero or positive, it is necessary to adjust the activity duration, logical relationship, time advance and delay quality, or other progress constraints

16, progress compression refers to what is the premise of shortening the progress time? What are the 2 kinds of technology? What are the drawbacks?

Reduce project progress time without changing project scope, schedule constraints, imposition dates, or other progress objectives.

(1) Progress disadvantage: increase the cost

(2) Quick read follow-up disadvantage: cause rework and usually increase risk

17. What are the most commonly used techniques in scenario analysis?

Using Monte Carlo Analysis

18. What is the resource decision method? What is the resource allocation backward scheduling method? (in resource balancing)

Resource decision-making: allocating scarce resources to activities on key routes first

Resource Allocation Rewind Progress method: Some projects may have a limited but critical project resource, and in this case, resources can be reversed from the end date of the project.

19. What is resource constraint schedule? (In the Critical Chain method)

The Project schedule Network diagram is plotted based on the given dependencies and constraints, and the critical routes are calculated. After determining the critical route, take into account the availability and the number of resources, and determine the resource constraints schedule

20. What is the output of the progress benchmark? What is the output of the range datum? What is the output of the project benchmark? What is the output of the cost benchmark?

The progress benchmark is the output of the schedule, the baseline is the output of the WBS, the project benchmark is the output of the overall project management plan, and the cost base is the output of the cost budget.

21. What are the content of progress control? (remember), what does scope control focus on? Compare memories?

Progress control Concerns:

(1) Determine the current status of the project progress;

(2) exert influence on the factors that cause the change of schedule, so as to ensure that the change will develop in a favourable direction;

(3) Determine the project schedule has been changed;

(4) Manage actual changes when the change occurs. Progress control is an integral part of the overall change control process.

Scope Control Concerns:

(1) Factors that affect the scope change,

(2) Ensure that all requested changes are handled in accordance with the overall change control process of the project,

(3) Management of actual changes when scope changes occur.

22. What methods are usually used to shorten the project duration? Remember

(1) Devote more resources to accelerating the process of activities;

(2) Assigning more experienced people to complete or assist in the completion of project work;

(3) Reduce the scope of activities or reduce the activity requirements (with the consent of the owner);

(4) Improve production efficiency through improved methods or techniques.

23, the main technology and tools of project schedule control? Remember

(1) Progress report

(2) Schedule Change control system

(3) Performance measurement

(4) Project management software

(5) Deviation analysis

(6) Progress Comparison Gantt chart

(7) Resource balance

(8) Scenario analysis of hypothetical conditions

(9) Progress compression

(10) Tools for making progress

Second, the project cost management
1. What are the processes involved in project cost management?

Develop cost management plan, cost estimate, cost budget and cost control.

2. What are the reasons for the project cost out of control? (remember 4 small headings)

Lack of understanding of engineering projects, imperfect organizational systems, methodological issues, and technical constraints.

3. What are the four types of cost? and definition?

(1) Variable cost: As the production volume, workload or time becomes cost variable cost.

(2) Fixed costs: Non-recurring costs that do not change with production, workload, or time are fixed costs.

(3) Direct cost: Direct cost is directly attributable to the project work.

(4) Indirect costs: project costs, which come from general management expense accounts or project costs shared by several projects, form the indirect cost of the project.

4. What is the definition of management reserve?

is a single-column plan to come out of the cost in case of future unforeseen events that occur when used. The management reserve contains cost or schedule reserves to reduce the risk of deviating costs or schedule targets, and the use of management reserves requires changes to the project baselines.

5, the main steps of project cost estimation? Remember

(1) Identification and analysis of the cost of the constituent account.

(2) estimate the cost size of each account based on the identified project cost component account.

(3) Analysis of cost estimates, to find a variety of mutually replaceable costs, coordination of the proportional relationship between the costs.

6. Tools and techniques for estimating costs? Remember

(1) Analogy estimation

(2) Determining resource rates

(3) Top-down estimation

(4) Parameter estimation

(5) Project management software

(6) Supplier bidding analysis

(7) Reserve analysis

(8) Quality cost

7, the use of the analogy estimate of the premise?

This approach is often used to estimate project costs when there is little knowledge of the details of the project, such as the initial phase of the project.

8, what is known unknown?? What is unknown and unknown? (in the reserve analysis)

Known unknowns: Contingency Reserve is an estimated cost that is freely used by the project manager to handle expected but uncertain events. These events, known as unknown events, are part of the project scope and cost baseline.

Unknown Unknown: The management reserve is a budget that is reserved to address unplanned but potentially required project scope and cost changes. They are "unknown unknowns", and the project manager must be approved before they use or spend the reserve.

9, the main steps of project cost budget? Remember

(1) Allocate the total project cost to each work package of the project work breakdown structure.

(2) The cost of each work package is redistributed to the activities contained in the work package.

(3) Determine the time plan and project cost budget plan of each cost budget expenditure.

10. What are the tools and techniques for project cost budgeting? (remember) Cocomo model

(1) Cost summary (bottom-up estimation method)

(2) reserve analysis (unknown unknown)

(3) Parameter estimation

(4) Balance of funds restriction

11, the parameters of the use of the estimated conditions?

(1) The diachronic information used to build the model is accurate.

(2) The parameters used in the model are easily quantified.

(3) models can be extended and are suitable for large projects and small projects.

12, the main content of cost control? (9)

(1) Influence factors that cause cost benchmark changes.

(2) Ensure that the request for change is agreed.

(3) When changes occur, manage these actual changes.

(4) To ensure that the potential cost overruns do not exceed the authorized stage funds and overall funds.

(5) Supervise the implementation of the cost (performance) to find deviations from the cost benchmark.

(6) Accurately record all deviations from the cost benchmark.

(7) The policy of incorrect, exact or unapproved changes is included in the cost or Resource Usage report.

(8) Notify the project stakeholders of changes to the validation.

(9) Take measures to control the anticipated cost overruns within an acceptable range.

13, cost control tools and technology? Remember

(1) Cost Change control system

(2) Performance measurement analysis

(3) Predictive technology

(4) Project performance Review

(5) Project management software

(6) Deviation management

14, PV, EV, AC, CV, SV, CPI, SPI, BAC, ETC, what does the EAC mean?

Plan value (PV): PV is the budgeted cost of planning to complete an activity or WBS component work before a predetermined point in time.

Earned Value (EV): EV is the budgeted cost of planning an activity or the actual completion of a WBS component within a given time period.
Actual Cost (AC): AC is the total cost of completing the work of a planned activity or WBS component within a given time period. AC must correspond to PV and EV in terms of definition and content scope (e.g. direct hours only, direct costs, or full costs including indirect costs).
Cost deviation (CV). CV equals EV minus AC. The cost deviation from completion of the project will be equal to the difference between the budgeted (BAC) and the actual cost of completion. The calculation formula is: CV = Ev-ac
Progress deviation (SV). SV equals EV minus PV. When the project is completed, because all the planned values have been realized, the progress deviation is finally equal to zero. The calculation formula is: SV = EV-PV
Cost performance index (CPI). A CPI value of less than 0 indicates that the cost exceeds the budget and that a CPI value greater than zero means that the cost is lower than the budget. CPI equals the ratio between EV and AC. CPI is the most commonly used cost-efficiency indicator. The calculation formula is: CPI = Ev/ac
Progress performance indicator (SPI). In addition to the progress status, the SPI also predicts the completion date. Sometimes used in conjunction with CPI to predict project completion estimates. The SPI equals the ratio between EV and PV. The calculation formula is: SPI = EV/PV
BAC completed budget
ETC to be completed budget
BAC completion Estimate

15, please explain the typical deviation, the meaning of the non-typical deviation?

The typical deviation is: if the current deviation is considered to represent a typical deviation of the future deviation: that is, the lower down, according to the current CPI,SPI execution down
Etc= (Bac-ev)/cpi
The atypical deviations are: if the current deviations are considered atypical deviations, and the project team expects that similar deviations will not occur in the future. That is, the return to normal, after the plan before.
Etc= (Bac-ev)

16, the completion still need to estimate Etc=bac-ev, how to understand?

BAC is the completion estimate, Ev is earned value. In the case of atypical deviations, the completion estimate is equal to the completion estimation minus the current cumulative earned value.

17, please do 2014 of the first half of the high afternoon exam questions two, and understand.

An information system integration project has a, B, C, D, E, F, G a total of 7 activities. The order relationship for each activity, the schedule progress, and the cost budget, capital letters are the activity names, and the first number in parentheses behind them is the number of weeks that the activity plan progresses, and the second number is the cost budget for the activity, which is the Million dollar unit. The project funds were invested three times, and were invested in the 1th Zhou Yan, 10th Zhou Yan and 15th weeks respectively.

During the first 9 weeks of the project, the 3rd Postmenstrual was suspended for 1 weeks due to a temporary activity by the company. In order to catch up, 4 developers are temporarily drawn from other project groups to this project team. At the 9th weekend, information on activities A, B and C is as follows, and no other activities have been carried out.

Activity A: Actual time 8 weeks, the actual cost of 1 million yuan, has been completed 100%;

Activity B: Actual time 4 weeks, the actual cost of 550,000 yuan, has been completed 100%;

Activity C: Actual time 5 weeks, the actual cost of 350,000 yuan, has been completed 100%.

Starting from week 10th, 4 developers were drawn out of the project, so that the project went through the 14th weekend as follows, where the difficulty of activity F was underestimated, resulting in deviations in schedule and cost.

Activity D: Actual time 2 weeks, the actual cost of 300,000 yuan, has been completed 100%; Activity E: Actual time 0 weeks, the actual cost of 0 yuan, has been completed 0%; activity f: Actual time 3 weeks, the actual cost of 400,000 yuan, completed 20%; activity G: Actual time 0 weeks, actual cost 0 yuan, completed 0%. Plan progress and cost budget as shown.

"Question 1" (10 points)

Under the premise of not affecting the overall project duration, the formulation of capital investment plan that can make the capital cost optimization, please calculate the amount of funds to be invested in three capital investment points and write out the sequence of execution of each project activity under this input plan.

"Question 2" (5 points)

Please calculate the cost deviation (CV) and schedule deviation (SV) for the project to the 9th weekend and analyze the progress of the project.

"Question 3" (5 points)

Please calculate the cost deviation (CV) and schedule deviation (SV) for the project at the beginning of the 15th week and analyze the progress of the project.

"Question 4" (5 points)

What is the best way to calculate the cost of completion (ETC) and the estimated cost of completion (EAC) in project 15th postmenstrual? Write the calculation formula.

Reference Answer:

"Question 1"

A: At the beginning of the first week, the investment is: 90+50+30=170 million yuan.

Execution order: The 1th to 4th week executes B activity, 1th to 6th week executes a activity, 第5-9 week executes C activity. At the beginning of the tenth week, the funds are: 30+20+60x (3/9) +40x (2/3) = 967,000 yuan.

Execution order: the 10th to 11th week executes the D activity, the 10th to 12th week executes the e activity, 第12-14 Week executes F activity, 第13-14 week executes G activity.

At the beginning of the 15th week, the funds were invested: 60x (6/9) +40x (1/3) = 533,000 yuan. Execution sequence: The 15th to 20th week continues the F activity, and the 15th week continues the G activity.

"Question 2"

Answer: cv=ev-ac= (90+50+30)-(100+55+35) =170-190=-20 million.

sv=ev-pv= (90+50+30)-(90+50+30) =170-170=0.

At the end of the 9th weekend, the actual schedule coincided with the plan, but the cost was over $200,000.

"Question 3"

A: According to the illustration, the 15th Zhou Yan (14 weekend) pv:pv=90+50+30+30+20+60x (3/9) +40x (2/3) = 2.6667 million Yuan. ev=90+50+30+30+60x20%=212 million Yuan. ac=100+55+35+30+40=260 million Yuan.

cv=ev-ac=212-260=-48 million Yuan. sv=ev-pv=212-266.67=-54.67 million Yuan.

At the 15th Zhou Yan (14 weekend), the actual progress was lagging behind the planned schedule and cost overruns of $480,000.

"Question 4"

A: Because the cause of the deviation has not been found or found, it is difficult to solve, so it is advisable to use the formula of typical deviations to calculate:

Etc= (Bac-ev)/cpi;

Eac= (AC+ETC); bac=90+50+30+30+20+60+40=320 million; ev=90+50+30+30+60x20%=212 million; ac=100+55+35+30+40=260 million;

Etc= (Bac-ev)/cpi= (320-212)/(212/260) = 1.3171 million Yuan;

Eac= (ac+etc) =260+131.71=391 million yuan.

This article from "Piano Happy Garden" blog, declined reprint!

Middle Note (v)

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