Mobile device Management (MDM) and OMA (OTA) DM Protocol Wizard (ii)--WAP Protocol (1)
On the "Mobile Device Management (MDM) and OMA (OTA) DM Protocol Wizard (i)"
16. Can I access WiMAX devices directly from the Web server?
See "WAP Protocol (1)--6th WAP Network Deployment" in this article
17. Can I use TCP instead of WDP/UDP to interact with wimax/3g devices
About WDP/UDP See this article "WAP Protocol (1)-5th Chapter WAP protocol Stack"
It is theoretically possible, but it is not recommended in practice. The long-distance wireless transmission network stability is not high, may cause the TCP retransmission too much influence wireless network speed, such as China Mobile GPRS (2.5G) network to adopt the UDP protocol.
WAP Protocol (1)
1. Why WAP is required (Wireless application Protocol)
The advent of Internet and mobile communication has greatly influenced and changed the way people live and work. But for a long time, accessing the Internet through mobile devices is just one of the people's dreams. WAP (Wireless Application protocol) is generated in such a context, allowing people to access the Internet at any time and place through a variety of mobile devices.
2. What is WAP
WAP is the abbreviation of Wireless Application Protocol (Wireless application protocal) and is an open global norm. WAP technology provides a bridge between the Internet and wireless devices, defining how wireless mobile devices communicate with fixed servers in the network.
In early 1997, a US network operator, Omnipoint, offered to provide mobile information services, which soon received a response from a number of large companies, but each used their own proprietary technology, and Omnipoint clearly stated that a public open standard should be developed. Eventually Ericsson and Motorola were added to Nokia and Phohe. COM's team, the establishment of the WAP forum, the joint development of WAP protocol, the purpose is to use the Internet business in mobile communications to develop a unified application standards.
Now the WAP forum has been unified in the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA), no longer in the form of an independent organization.
The development stage of 4.WAP
First stage: wap1.x (1998~2002)
At that time in the 2G wireless transmission technology, wireless data transmission system bandwidth is very narrow (GSM CSD 9.6K), due to switching and other reasons, data transmission is not stable, and mobile terminal screen small, display color and ability are limited. In view of these characteristics, WAP forum has prepared a series of protocols such as WML, WSP, WTP, WDP and so on. To meet the requirements of wireless Internet access.
Phase II: WAP2.0 (2002~2004)
This phase of wireless data transmission technology has been effectively developed, the transmission rate and reliability are well guaranteed, so the WAP forum canceled the WSP, WTP, WDP, etc. for wireless transmission of the Protocol, replaced by the Internet Protocol (TCP/UDP, etc.), WML is also in the convergence to XHTML. MMS, Provisioning, pictograms are added to the business, and the UAProf (User Agent profile) and push capabilities are enhanced. Wired and wireless convergence trend is obvious, and similar to push, provisioning and other wireless network functions also play an important role in the development of wired internet Internet.
Phase III: Open Mobility Alliance (OMA) (under development)
XHTML will become the only markup language used, the Web site becomes a network of wired, wireless internet business, WAP original WML, WSP, WTP, WTLS, WDP all disappeared, instead of Internet-related protocols. PUSH, personalization, terminal adaptation, content playback and other mobile network technology results will be applied to the entire Internet, and become an important functional component. Because of the development of wireless data transmission technology in this stage, the wireless transmission and the wired transmission are basically no different in the upper application, and the Internet has been fused in the wireless and wired communication system unprecedentedly. At this stage, mobile data and value-added services are greatly enriched, and various types of mobile terminals have been fully applied and verified.
5.WAP protocol Stack
Application Layer (WAE) HTML
Session Layer (WSP)
Transaction layer (WTP)
Security Layer (WTLS) SSL
Transport Layer (WDP/UDP) tcp/udp
3G, WiMAX ...
(1) Wae Application layer
The Wireless Telephone application (WTA) enables WAP to be well integrated with the various advanced telecommunications services that exist in the telecommunications network, such as the Intelligent network business. Through the user interface, mobile users can apply a variety of telecommunications services without the need to modify the mobile terminal.
(2) WSP Session Layer
The session Layer protocol provides a connection-oriented (confirmed push) or no-connection (connectionless push) session Communication service for upper-level applications.
(3) WTP transaction layer
Provides a lightweight, transaction-oriented service that is specifically optimized for use with wireless data networks.
(4) WTLS Security Layer
SSL-based secure transport protocol that provides encryption, authorization, and data integrity capabilities.
(5) WDP Transport Layer
Wireless Datagram Protocol, a universal data transmission service, can support a variety of wireless bearer networks, so that the upper Wae, WSP, WTP, Wtls independent of the lower layer of the wireless network, the use of lower load capacity for the upper layer to provide a consistent service.
If the WAP proxy/gateway receives messages that are transmitted over the UDP protocol of the Internet network, the WAP proxy/gateway also uses UDP instead of WDP to interact with the mobile device. For WAP proxy/Gateway see the next chapter, "WAP Network deployment."
6.WAP Network Deployment
(1) WAP application directly interacts with the device via WAP server (WAP application server)
< base station (BS) signaling Network >
[Mobile Device] <-----wsp----->[wap Server]
If only to provide a simple WAP application, you can use the existing network server, only change the MIME type can be, the WAP Web page or program uploaded to the WAP-enabled server, mobile devices can be accessed by the input URL, WAP server needs to implement WAP protocol stack.
WAP applications can be implemented via Microsoft IIS6.0 in the following steps:
1) First, open IIS to set a new MIME type for it, which is set in the HTTP header option of the Web site properties. The MIME type required to add the WAP.
The extension MIME type. WML text/vnd.wap.wml. Wbmp image/vnd.wap.wbmp. WMLC application/vnd.wap.wmlc. wmls text/vnd.wap.wmlscript. WMLSC application/
2) After you have determined that your IIS can support WAP, but when we are in the browser to enter the WAP page address is prompted to download the WML file, then you must install a WAP browser, such as M3gate, you can http://www.gmcc.net/wap/
M3stp06.zip download to.
tomcat5.0 versions are generally supported for WML, and if not supported, modify Catalina_home/conf/web.xml. In the MIME Mappings section, add the following:
<extension> WML </extension>
<mime-type> TEXT/VND.WAP.WML </mime-type>
<extension> WMLC </extension>
<mime-type> APPLICATION/VND.WAP.WMLC </mime-type>
!--WML Script Source-->
<extension> wmls </extension>
<mime-type> Text/vnd.wap.wmlscript </mime-type>
!--Compiled WML Script-->
<extension> WMLSCRIPTC </extension>
<mime-type> APPLICATION/VND.WAP.WMLSCRIPTC </mime-type>
(2) The Web server interacts with the device (WAP proxy) through the WAP agent (WAP Gateway)
< base station (BS) signaling Network >
[Mobile Device] <----wsp----[wap gateway]---http--->[wap Server]
WAP Proxy/Gateway implements the transition between the WAP protocol stack (WSP, WTP, WTLS, and WDP) and the Internet Protocol stack. WAP Proxy translates WAP requests into WWW requests, and also translates Web server responses into compressed binary WML format data for mobile terminal understanding. The information content codec encodes WAP data in order to reduce network data traffic and make maximum use of the slow data transmission rate of the wireless network. At the same time, WAP also uses error correction technology to ensure that the network browsing and data transmission process will not be severely affected by the change of wireless channel quality.
In the WAP2.0 version, the following new protocol stack features are supported:
(1) In the transport layer, WAP2.0 uses the WP TCP/IP protocol with wireless features so that the network can transmit data based on IP. WP TCP provides a connection-oriented service that is optimized for use in wireless environments and is fully interoperable with standard TCP applications on the Internet.
(2) At the session layer, WAP2.0 uses the HTTP protocol with wireless features (WP http), WP HTTP specification for the wireless environment of the HTTP protocol subset, fully able to work with http/1.1. WAP device and WAP proxy server/wap the server to work interactively between
The basic model is the HTTP request/response processing mechanism. WP HTTP supports the establishment of the message body compression and secure channel for the response. In this way, the WAP2.0 does not necessarily require a WAP proxy server, because the client and the source server side can be directly finished by using http/1.1
into mobile apps.
(3) WAP2.0 adds additional security assurances, including the use of the TLS protocol, which allows the mobile terminal to establish a TLS secure tunnel directly with the application server WAP2.0 support Tcp/http, enabling end-to-end encryption. Provides improved end-to-end security, integration
Wired Internet, etc. to ensure the security of mobile services such as mobile commerce and mobile banking applications. The wireless protocol subset of the TLS protocol allows for interactive operations on secure transports. The protocol subset of TLS includes security measures such as cipher clusters, validation Word formats, signature rules, and session recovery.
The main advantages of WAP2.0 are as follows:
(1) Faster: WAP Gateway does not have to do http/tcp and WSP/WTP/WDP protocol conversion, mobile phone side do not do WSP/WTP/WDP resolution, but the network needs to do HTTP/TCP wireless configuration.
(2) Performance improvement: the same hardware devices support more concurrent users because they do not make a lot of protocol conversions.
(3) provides an end-to-end security mechanism: When using TLS, the WAP gateway does not have to parse the HTTP application, it is the end-to-end protocol for transparent transmission.
(4) Rich content: Because the WAP2.0 protocol uses the wired Internet compatible language, therefore obtains the more widespread support, the more application can be used more easily in the mobile Internet, this is does not have on the wap1.x, this compatibility also makes WAP2.0 than wap1.x
There is a longer lifespan and a stable product form (without frequent escalation in protocol and markup language), allowing mobile users to enjoy the rich content of the wired Internet.