Teach you to know the main chip on the motherboard

Source: Internet
Author: User

1 BIOS chip
The BIOS (basic input Output system) is a basic input U-out system that serves the hardware in your computer. The BIOS is a read-only memory that contains the system boot program, the drivers for the hardware devices that are required for system startup, and the basic hardware interface device drivers. Currently, the BIOS chip in the motherboard is mainly provided by award and Ami two companies.
At present, the BIOS chip mainly uses PLCC (plastic leaded chip) package form, this form of encapsulation chip is very small, from the appearance of the approximate square. This package can reduce the board space occupied by the chip, thereby increasing the integration of the motherboard and reducing the size of the motherboard, as shown in 4. Common BIOS chip models are mainly the following:

(1) Winbond Company's w49f020, w49f002, W49VO02FAP and so on.
(2) SST Company's 29ee020, 49lf002, 49lf004 and so on.
(3) Intel Company's 82802AB and so on.

2 South Bridge and North Bridge chip
Chipset is the "soul" and core of the motherboard, chipset performance determines the performance of the motherboard and the level of quality. Chipset is generally composed of two large chips, these two chips are often said South Bridge and North Bridge, 5 shows

"South Bridge, North Bridge" is named after the chip on the motherboard location, bridge chip is located in the middle of the CPU socket and AGP slot, its large size, due to high intensity of work, a large amount of heat, generally on the chip covered with a heat sink or cooling fan. The South Bridge chip is generally located below the motherboard, near the PCI slot. The
    North Bridge Chip is primarily responsible for contacting the CPU and controlling memory, which provides support for hardware devices such as CPU type, frequency, memory type and capacity, PCI, AGP slots, and more. If the North Bridge chip is broken, the phenomenon is not bright, and sometimes light after the crash.
    South Bridge chip is mainly responsible for supporting keyboard controller, USB interface, real-time clock controller, data transfer mode and Advanced Power management, the South Bridge chip after the phenomenon is not bright, some peripherals can not be used, such as the IDE port, FDD mouth, etc. can not be used, It may be that the South Bridge chip is broken. Because the south, North Bridge chip more expensive, welding and more special, take off they need a special BGA, so the general repair point can not repair South, North Bridge chip, and generally outdated motherboard also does not need to repair.
    Current chipset vendors include Intel Corporation, VIA, AMD, ALI (Ali Corporation), SIS (SIS), NVIDIA, ATI, which Intel and Via are at the forefront of chipset vendors, and Nvidia is home to the latter.

3: Chip
If the computer system is likened to the adult body, the CPU deserves to be the human brain, and the clock chip is the human heart. If the heart stops beating, the human life will also end. The clock chip is also the same, through the clock chip to the motherboard on the chip to provide a clock signal, these chips can work normally, if the clock signal is missing, the motherboard will be trapped in the human paralysis.
The clock chip needs to be connected to the 14.318MHz crystal oscillator, providing a clock signal for other parts on the motherboard, and the clock chip is located near the AGP slot. Put here is also very fastidious, because the clock to the CPU, North Bridge, memory and other clock signal line to wait long, so this position is more appropriate. The function of the clock chip is also very important, it can give the whole computer system to provide different frequency, so that each chip can work normally. Without this frequency, a lot of chips may be going on strike. The clock chip is damaged and the motherboard is generally not working.
Now many motherboards have a linear overclocking function, in fact, this function is provided by the clock chip, figure 6 is shown as the clock chip.

Common clock chips are available in the following types:
(1) ICS series 950213AF, 93725AF, 95022813F, 952607EF and so on.
(2) Winbond series of w83194r, W211BH, w485112-24x and so on.
(3) RTM series of rtm862-480, RTM560, RTM360 and so on.

4 I/O chip
I/O is an abbreviation for English input/output, which means input and output. I/O chip function is mainly to provide users with a series of input, output interface, mouse/keyboard interface (PS/2 interface), serial port (COM port), and port, USB interface, floppy drive port and so on unified by I/O chip control. Some I/O chips can also provide the system temperature detection function, the user sees in the BIOS the system temperature the most original source is provided here.
The I/O chip is large, and the user can clearly distinguish it, as shown in 7. It is generally located at the edge of the motherboard, the current popular I/O chip has ite Company's 8712 and Winbond Company's 83627 and so on.

The I/O chip is typically powered by 5V and 3.3V. The I/O chip is directly controlled by the South Bridge chip, if the I/O chip problems, light will cause one or all I/O devices can not work properly, heavy will cause the entire system paralysis. If the motherboard can not find the keyboard or Chuanjiang port failure, it is likely that they provide services for the I/O chip has a different degree of damage. What we usually call hot-plug operation is to protect the I/O chip is proposed, because in the hot plug operation will produce an instantaneous large current, it is likely to burn the I/O chip.
Common I/O chips are available in the following types:
(1) Winbond Company's W83627HF, W83627ehg, W83697HF, W83877HF, W83977HF and so on.
(2) ITE Company's it8702f, it8705f, it8711f, it8712f and so on.
(3) SMSC Company's lpc47m172, lpc47b272 and so on.

5 Power Management ICs
The function of the power management chip is based on the feedback of the circuit in the internal adjustment, the output of various power supply or control voltage, mainly responsible for identifying the CPU power supply amplitude, CPU, memory, AGP, chipset and other power supply. Figure 8 shows the power management chip.

Power management chips are typically powered by 12V and 5V, and if the power management chip is damaged it will cause the motherboard to not work.
Common power management chip models have the following main types:
(1) Hip series of HIP6301, HIP6302, HIP6601, HIP6602, hip6004b, HIP6016, hip6018b, HIP6020, HIP6021 and so on.
(2) RT series of RT9227, RT9237, RT9238, RT9241, RT9173, RT9174 and so on.
(3) SC series of SC1150, SC1152, SC1153, sc1155/sc1164, SC2643, SC1189 and so on.
(4) RC series of RC5051, RC5057 and so on.
(5) ADP series of ADP3168, ADP3418 and so on.
(6) LM series of LM2636, LM2637, LM2638, LM2639 and so on.
(7) ISL series of ISL6556, ISL6537 and so on.

6 Serial Chip
Serial chip is mainly responsible for controlling the work of the COM port, the serial port chip has 20 feet and 48 feet two kinds, usually located near the motherboard serial interface, Figure 9 is a serial chip.

The operating voltage of the serial chip is mainly +12v, -12v and V, the serial chip is controlled by I/O chip. If the serial port chip is damaged, the serial port will not work properly.
Common serial-port chip models are mainly GD75232, st75185c, HT6571, it8687r and so on.

7 Audio Chip
Sound chip is the motherboard integrated sound processing chip, sound chip is a square chip, all around the pin, usually located near the first PCI slot, near the edge of the motherboard position, in its neatly lined with resistors and capacitors, so the user can be easily identified, 10 is shown.

The current sound chip company mainly has Realtek, via and CMI, because they all support the AC ' 97 specifications, so is unified called the AC ' 97 sound card, but different companies have different drivers of sound cards. The integrated sound card has a two-channel, four-channel, six-channel and eight-channel, but is set up in the system to be able to use normally.
Common sound chip models are ALC650, ALC850, CM17838, VIA1616 and so on.

8 Network Chip
A network chip is a chip used to process network data when the motherboard is integrated with network functions, typically located near an audio interface or USB interface, as shown in 11. Common network card Chip model has RTL8100, RTL8101, RTL8201, VT6103 and so on.

Teach you to know the main chip on the motherboard

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