The characteristics and the composition of words

Source: Internet
Author: User

The characteristics and the composition of words

Yang Sen Xiang

To write good words, we must first understand the characteristics of words.

CI is a kind of lyric poetry, which is a yuefu poem that can sing with music. Its strict metrical and the various characteristics in the form, are stipulated by the music request. The different forms of words and poems have the following main points:

(1) Each word has an adjustment name. such as "Bodhisattva", "Water tune Song Head", "Qinyuanchun" and so on, called utterance ineffable. Utterance ineffable that the song is based on the composition of the melody, not just the title. Each utterance ineffable is "fixed sentence, sentence has fixed word, word has fixed sound", and are different.

(2) A word is mostly divided into several pieces (que), in order to divide two pieces of the most. One piece is that the music has been sung over. Each word is divided into several pieces, which is composed of a few pieces of music to synthesize a complete song.

(3) The rhyme position each utterance ineffable has its certain format. Poetry is basically a rhyme, the rhythm of the word is based on the curvature, that is, the music pause decision. Each utterance ineffable music rhythm is different, the rhyme position also is different.

(4) The sentence length varies. The poem also has the short and short sentence, but takes five or seven words as the basic sentence, the chinses rhymed poetry also does not allow the short sentence. Words are used in a large number of short and long sentences, this is to better fit the melody of the tune.

(5) The word sound fits tightly. Word sound tissue changes a lot, some utterance ineffable also need to distinguish between four tones and yin and yang. Lyrics to trial tone with words, with the tone of the text to match the tone of the score, in order to co-law and good-sounding.

To write good words, but also to choose good utterance ineffable.

The words are filled in according to the score, so the lyrics have to choose utterance ineffable first. "Etymology" Volume attached Yang Shouxie (anaemia) "lyrics five to", said the lyrics to have five: "The first to choose the cavity." The cavity does not rhyme, such as "The Cork Weng Yin" of the Decline SA, "Emperor Taiwan Spring" is not smooth, "separated Pulin" of the evil spirit, "fight flowers" tasteless is also. "Every accent has a certain emotion. The choice of lyrics, mainly is to choose emotion and their own feelings to express the appropriate tone, so that the sound of the word nurtured, to obtain emotion and the text of the same situation. Such words can be made into the sound of the text and Mao. --This is the first thing to pay attention to the choice of lyrics. Otherwise words too literally, will appear form and content good away from the problem, even the opposite, make jokes. For example, "Horong" is the expression of impassioned thoughts and feelings. and "Yan" irrelevant. If one sees the word "groom", it is regarded as a celebration of the newly-married utterance ineffable, and misuse is wrong. Also such as "Shou Lou Chun", nor because there is a "shou" word, it is to be used for the birthday of the utterance ineffable, in fact, the contrary, its tone is sad. Parrellism, a poet of Southern Song Dynasty, was used to fill the mourning words.

To write good words, but also to make the text of the same situation and harmony.

How to make the text situation and emotion consistent?

The word is the music literature, and the song Method of Song Ci has long been lost, all utterance ineffable can not sing according to the original spectrum, which requires us to learn to discern the emotion of utterance ineffable. According to the records of the time and the existing works, it is best to be based on the song of the CI poet's works and the original works of the utterance ineffable, to analyze, utterance ineffable expressed emotion is sad is happy, is Wanzhuan lingering or stigmatized, can be from the length of the sentence, the tone of the disease, severity, ye yun density and symmetry or not, etc. , the complex relationship between their emotion and lexical expressions is deduced in many aspects. For example, "six states song Head", from the name know from the Tang Dynasty Northwest Frontier (six states are Illinois, Liangzhou, Shizhou, Ganzhou, Wiltshire, di states), when is sonorous and vigorous, suitable for expressing generous and tragic emotion. Song people about this tune records such as Cheng Dachang "in the Fan Lu" volume 16 said: "Six states song head" this preaching song also. Modern good people preach its voice for hoary words, such as ' Qin died Sauri, Liu items from annexation ' (Liu Zhongfang ci "Xiang Yu Temple" See "Tang and song All Yin Wonderful Ci" volume five) is also, the tone is tragic. "Hetaoci's six-state song head" is also an earlier work, the first 39 sentences, of which 22 sentences are three words, the longest is only five words. 34 rhyme, and East, Dong, frozen to three identical leaves. The words are short, the rhyme is dense, the word is loud. The author is to promote the festival, 亢爽 passionate voice to write their own Hao longitudinal unrestrained voice heroism, wen and emotion exactly the same. From the content of lyrics, sentence, intonation, ye Yun and so on, we can certainly be sure that it is a "tone solemn and tragic" melody. Later Zhang Xiaoxiang, Liu, Liang the amount of people fill in this tune, or hanging the traces of the ancient rise and fall, or express their loyalty to the eagle, the tone is generous and dreary. And "six states song head" similar, there are "Azolla", "read slave jiao" and other notes, are suitable for writing bold feelings. So every utterance ineffable is expressing a certain emotion. Song lyrics are in accordance with their own thoughts and feelings to choose to adjust, we now read their words, we should also understand their use of the utterance ineffable emotion and their works of the relationship between the text.

There are several ways to identify utterance ineffable emotion, such as the following:

(1) According to previous records analysis: Tang and song people in the book of all the words and utterance ineffable emotion, generally credible. such as Song Mao open "Qiao hidden record" said: "In the early days of Shaoxing, all under the popular week Muslim chant Willow" Lan Ling Wang Slow ", West building South tile are songs, that is, Weicheng three stacks. To the Zhou word where three change head, to the last paragraph, sound especially intense, but the teaching square old flute teacher can rely on the festival song. This also shows the emotion of the last paragraph of the "King of Lan Ling Wang slow". Unfortunately, this kind of records, in the Tang and Song dynasties are relatively rare.

(2) According to Tang and song Ci works to argue: this can be according to the "Calendar Deshi" (Qing Kangxi Shen, such as the compilation of a word, the Tang and Song dynasties since the words according to the sub-compilation) of the books, in a tune under a lot of words, analysis of its content emotion, if there are 10 of seven or eight the same, that is about to conclude that this tune is a class of emotion such as "Azolla", "Horong" can be used this method to break into a kind of uninhibited agitation. Although there are exceptions, the general difference is not far.

(3) According to the tone of the sentence rhyme: Some words are difficult to analyze, or some of the works of complex feelings, can be in accordance with the rhyme of the words, speculate: In general, with the location of the rhythm of uniform, emotion is bound to be more peaceful forgive; with rhyme over sparse, emotion is not slow, is rapid; Emotion more comfortable, more than six words, six words parallelism, emotion is more stable, the word sound tonal and evenly, the emotion will be peaceful, many make the sentence, the emotion will be depressed.

(4) According to the author genre and the time to distinguish: such as the Bold poets, lyrics more elegant and bold, graceful faction is clear wan brilliant. -to the bold faction representative, known in the word altar of Xin Ji, the existing total of 226, there is "Water tune song head" 35, "Azolla" 32, "Horong" 22, "read slave jiao" 19, these are suitable for the expression of generosity, solemn and heroic, bold and vigorous passion of the word, which accounted for his all the words of more than The changes of the times and the change of the environment also have a great influence on the CI of CI poets. For example, is called "graceful Pope" Li Qingzhao's word, nandu before and after, is two completely different sentiment: pre-write girlfriends Love acacia, reflect the love of nature and the pursuit of love, crisp Decleor, the latter is more descriptive guopoguwang agitation life, feeling sad and dreary feelings.

To write good words, you must also be familiar with the composition of words.

The composition of the word is used in poetry, but it has its own characteristics due to the close cooperation with music. The beginning, the film and the end how to write, can be said to be the core of the word. Here are a few representative and distinctive ways of writing.

1. How to start:

The starting and the beginning of the word to "work". Like the door of the garden, so that a person can be a glimpse of a good view of the corner, but can not be sweeping, so as to cause a certain need to go in, look down the strong interest. There are some more common and distinctive openings in song CI:

(1) Rally: Straight to the point, the caps, a sentence dear the main thrust of the word or the content of the summary word. Single from the words seem to be bland, actually like bow to hair, often flick a turn, like a cliff waterfall, a diarrhea and down. Called "momentum". This method is not only the bold poet refers to the current affairs, the lyric often use, that is, the graceful school lyric works also abounds.

Liu Yong is very good at narrating, he wrote Qiantang area magnificent scenery and the masterpiece of Hangzhou bustling Life "sea tide", there is a seemingly quite straight start: "Southeast shape wins, three Wu Metropolis, Money pond from ancient times prosperous." As an essay, the coarse pen outlines the object that the whole word is written in. Then the lens from far and near, write Panorama, write rivers and lakes, write the city Chan, write the West Lake, write tourists, there is a running through the main line, so that the reader can not infix. At the same time, the author first wipe a coarse pen, and then chapped dye coloring, fine painting, singing out "Smoke Willow painting Bridge, wind curtain cui screen", "ploughing gui Zi, ten Li Lotus" such a refined and beautiful, the thickness of a matched, more generous charm.

Sometimes the beginning of the whole use of ordinary words, organized it is strange heroic. such as Liu's "Qinyuanchun" (Sent Sin Cheng): "Fighting wine grunter shoulder, wind and rain cross the river, not fast!" In the first reading it seems to hear the poet's Lang smile, touched the poet's temperament. Then, the flick of the pen, please out of Bai Juyi, such as three historical figures, the sound of Xiao-shaped, borrowed the words of the ancients, the table of their own, the full use of the law and with a very strong romantic color. If there is no beginning as a straight-out sentence, then the text will appear dull.

(2) Creation of the environment: from the scenery start, first created a suitable theme, and then because of the scenery, according to the scene narrative, with the main part of the word. Called the "creation of the environment."

Months's "Fishing songs Son", together hand first draw a spring river static show peaceful landscape--the mountain before flying egrets, underwater swimming mandarin fish, how free and quiet ah! This is the beginning of the following with the fisherman self-condition of the author appeared to create a typical environment, the author also use this environment Jiyu himself to transcend the reality of the feelings.

Scenery in order to write sentiment, is indistinct wide or quiet narrow, all by the theme needs to decide. The same is written autumn, fan Zhongyan "su screen cover" is written Wanderers guest house Sze Chen, to "Blue sky, yellow leaf, autumn, the wave of cold smoke cui" beginning, very wash the painting of a lonely, carved zero of the late autumn scene, so that people a look will produce Wanderers guest house difficult, mood tune despair feeling. Xin Xin's "Water Dragon Yin" theme is much more ambitious, his opening is "Chu days thousands of miles clear autumn, water with the sky Autumn boundless", how vast Jiangnan autumn, we feel is broad cangyu rather than desolate loneliness, because only such a state to meet the author's broad mind, only to accommodate the author in the word Jiyu the kind of the ambition of the anger.

(3) Thinking: First set a question, or point out the test instructions, or create a suspense, the introduction of deep thinking, so into the rush to see. Then the main body of the word is drawn in the form of reply. This is a commonly used in the beginning of the poet, is called "thinking." Sometimes, first with a rhetorical question, clear back into the dark, and then the intention to launch, like a bow hair pills in general.

How deep is the courtyard? Willow heap Smoke, the curtain heavy. (Ouyang Xiu "Butterfly Love Flower")

How deep is the courtyard? Cloud window Fog pavilion often shut. (Li Qingzhao's "Riverside Fairy")

These two paragraphs are first with a specific sentence beginning, said is "specifically", in fact, the answer has been hidden in it (worry endless, courtyard deep), and thus the following are not positive answer, and with heartbroken, spring to write Acacia, what, with Liu Yan, fog pavilion symbol deep sorrow, the mood is much deeper than the indicative.

This method of asking the beginning, compared to the expression of delicate feelings, but Nade can also be used to express the spirit of bold. For example:

33 years, who is the one who saves the king and the Yangtze River. (Su shi "Moon Ting Fong")

The language seems to be normal, but the answer is surprisingly, a question and a special look affectionate and heroic. Qing ci evaluation He is to "Jian sentence eight words, more Qifeng prominent."

Who pushes the mountain in the middle of the night? Four clouds guess is ru. (Xin Ji-ji "Wang Louchun, Play Fu Yun Shan")

Out of the language is very peculiar, the answer is deliberately vague, it can make people seem to face the Yunfeng, there is a magical and strange vagaries of the sense.

2, how to cross the film:

Over-film is a peculiar discipline of words. What's a piece? Besides Xiao Ling, words are fragmented, and most are divided into two slices. They are the two levels of the theme of the same factory, which must be closely related to each other. The key is in the upper and lower part of the link, that is, the beginning of the next piece, called the chip. In the past, the people who wrote and evaluated the words attached great importance to the film, especially stressing that "the film must not break the song meaning, it needs to be attached to the next". (Zhang Yan) "Commitment on the next" is a general requirement, to be close and natural, and to be innovative. Shenyi father, "Yuefu Point Fan" said: "If only the high side can initiate new ideas, but not too wild, go the original intention." "It's about people taking care of both.

Over the specific method of the film hundred-mode, and underachievement rules can follow, commonly used in the following ways:

(1) The pen breaks the meaning unceasingly, the upper and lower tightly connects. This is the most common practice. There are two cases, one is the meaning, although the next, but the wording of the apparent tingbian, so that a person is known to be another one. Zhang Yan respected jiang Kui "we" "Yu Lang first self-yin Fu" is the model of this practice.

"Yu Lang first from Yin Fu." desolately more to hear the whispers. The dew Wet copper shop, the moss invades the stone well, has listened to the Iraq place. The Voice of sorrow is like a lawsuit. The woman without sleep, looking for loom. Qu Ping Shan, night cool alone very emotional!

The west window also blew the dark rain. For who intermittent, phase and anvil pestle? Hou Hall Ying Qiu, Imperial Villa hanging month, don't have sad countless. At poems are diffuse and. The light of the hedge, the children of the world, write the silk, a sound more bitter. ”

The word was written by the Crickets ' song and caused reminiscence. The word is ordered to explain the origin of the lyrics: With the Zhang Gongcheng father will drink, the smell of cricket song between the wall, is the word. The deeds of the father are first, and the words are very beautiful. Jiang Kui "Wandering jasmine Room, Yang see Autumn Moon, Reminiscence, find also this". The sentence of the word is echoing the word order, highlighting a "sorrow", but also the whole word sentiment. Listen to the father of the word has been troubles, not to mention the crickets that like a whisper-like sorrow sound. In this way, the author of the beginning of the Troubles and the sound of the worm knot tightly together. Then, the author explores the transition with xunshengjiuku and transfers it to the description of the Crickets ' lament. He uses loom sound, dark rain, anvil pestle sound, genre sound, meticulous eight slightly than the situation insect sound, and by this insect sound association to think woman No sleep, waiting for the autumn, Imperial Villa hanging Month, outstanding a lonely, missing feelings, from this recalled to childhood call light irrigation points, catch insects for the play. In contrast, the more you feel reminiscence infinite. All of this is concatenating straight down, it is difficult to separate completely. But the author is very wonderfully caught "west window and Blowing dark rain" as a piece. The front end sentence has been said to "night cool alone very emotional!" In this cold of the cold night alone to listen to the autumn insects lament already feel unbearable; considers the window of the west of the faint rain knocking the sound of the window! A "Again" word, both the upper and lower pieces tightly connected together, and make it clearly divided into two paragraphs, means is indeed uncommon.

Xin Xin's "Bodhisattva" (book Jiangxi ostomy Wall) is equally brilliant. The author first wrote down to look at the lonely Taiwan under the tens of thousands of refugees and tears of the river, and then write Jutou North Hope Ancient capital, hills indistinct the concern of the eyes, on the end in the "Mountain" word ("poor countless mountains"). Then, the next film from the "Mountain" said: "Castle Peak, after all, the east flow." "From the castle Peak and respond to the river." The two "mountains" connected to the film, the cohesion is so tight and rhythm and how clear!

(2) Abnormal peak, contrast is obvious. Over the film is very distinct, it seems that the film is said to be two things, look carefully, only to find the whole mood, feelings, Nadis is complete. Such a film, Qiaobo steep, with a clear contrast to the knot sentence. Xin Xin's "Shui Yin" (cross South Jian Sungai Building) is a good example:

"Jutou Northwest Cloud, leaning days miles must sword." Here, the night is deep and deep, bullfighting flame. I think the mountain is high, water-cooled pond, the star light of the month. To burn under the rhino look, railing but afraid, storm anger, fish dragon miserable.

Gorge Beam Cang Jiang, over dangerous, want to fly also convergence. Old Elder, may as well Gaowo, curling cold dian. The rise and fall of the ages, a century of laughter, a moment to glance. Ask Who and unload, piece sail sand bank, fasten the setting sun cable. ”

Top writers overlook the Sword Brook, fantasy to take out the sword, in order to achieve the ambition to kill the nation, but by the authorities of the obstruction. On the piece knot sentence "Thunder and fury, Fish Dragon miserable", the sentiment is very desolate. But the film has appeared a very straight steep image: "Gorge beam Cang Jiang on", suddenly put a person's line of sight to the peak, and then spit out the infinite feeling of ambition. On the film to the beginning of Xu Zhi and sorrow, the next film to express anger-based and rise in the passionate, the boundary is clear, to the country's incomparable concern and the passion of powerlessness.

(3) The upper and lower coherence, literal juxtaposition. The upper and lower pieces of the text meaning side by side, or a reverse, or a today, and to over-chip for the bridge, the next piece of the first tight cover on the end, so that the film through. such as Li Yu "Broken the Son":

40 years of home country, 3,000 miles of mountains and rivers. Feng ge Dragon Loulian Han, cajeput branch for Smoke Luo. Ever knows sword.

Once attributed to the Chen, Shen Waist Pan pin mill. The most is a hasty speech Temple Day, the teaching square still play parting song. Weeping to Gonge.

On the film remember the former Emperor life, the next piece of whine today, the plight of the bleak, one now, a reverse, contrast is very clear. Over the film, on the film to the past even sword do not know what to make knot, the next piece to suddenly sword under the enemy of the prisoners under the initial, mutual echo, even tight, turn to be urgent, natural kind, make people moved. Chen and righteousness of "Linjiang Shan" "Yi-Wu Bridge on the bridge to drink" situation is approximate. On the piece recalled Nandu before in the West Jing Luoyang in the dashing years, the next piece to express the melancholy of the southern corner now, and to "more than 20 years into a dream" made a film, continuity, and set the whole word is depressed tone.

Benzhong "Mulberry Son" is another-type:

Hate June not like the River Building month, north and south things. North-South stuff. Only with no parting.

Hate June but like the River Building month, temporary full also loss. The temporary full also loses. When is the reunion?

The upper and lower pieces of a reverse, there is no obvious over the piece of sentence, and the above in the format of the repetition, to achieve the connection between the upper and lower slices and distinguish.

(4) Overall a point, direct transition. The upper and lower slice overall a point, in the meantime often does not have the transition function the sentence, the format itself decides the upper and lower slice is both the whole and has the difference relations.

For example, Zhao Enterprise's "sense of the emperor," the word, write sharpens, the total write, the next piece of a layer, divided into four stories from the original hate. Thus, the separation of people's psychological state, the most vividly traced.

(5) There is a question to answer, up and down. Li Xiaoguang "Azolla", on the end of the sentence as "boat humane: ' Official according to the bottom of the whizzing run?" The next piece of the first sentence said, "The official has the language, according to listen", straight ask straight answer, relatively rare. Li Qingzhao's "Fisherman's Pride" "Days connect Yuntao even Xiao Fog" can be classified into this category:

"Days Connect Yuntao even dawn fog." The Galaxy wants to turn the thousand sails dance. As if haunts had returned to the emperor. Shintian. Ask me where I belong?

I quoted the road long sigh at dusk. There is an astonishing sentence in the study of poetry. 90,000 Li Feng Peng is lifting. The wind closed. The boat blows away the Sanshan. ”

The other is, the last sentence with a question knot, and the next piece, although not directly answered, but the content is actually issued on the issue, echoing the above. This kind of writing is much more visible. Such as:

"Hua unchanged stars, surprised ambition into a virtual, this body such as mailed." Depression disease. To the Anli, the elimination of heroic in the year. Dream broken the mountains and rivers, separated by heavy smoke water. Thousands of miles. Old society carved zero, green Meng Jun swim who remember?

All the way Kam Li bustling, sigh official idle day forever, Firewood Jing Tim Sleep. A clear sorrow comes from drunkenness. Read the mind to whom you are. Zhu Qiang, know when the east died empty despair hope, tartare mei mushroom incense, Autumn wind again. (Lu you, two-headed Lotus is a fan of the system)

On the piece sigh with regret "ambition into virtual, this body like send", deep love the motherland and falling thousands of miles, a tearful set asked: Old comrades have scattered wandering, youth in the ancient capital of the impassioned struggle life still have who remember? The following does not have a positive answer, but also to turn the pen back to the personal ideal ambition can not achieve the Depression, Sigh Official Idle Day forever, Firewood Jing Tim Sleep "made a film." In fact, this is just another way of answering: who can achieve the bosom of that day in an environment that supine but does nothing?

Xin Xin's "Shui Yin" (for Han Nanjian shou) also near this. While attacking the endangers of the Southern Song Dynasty, he put forward "who is the one who can really supine the tide"? ("How many people really jinglun hands?") The completion of the business is the scholar is proud of the event, you understand? ("Calculate flat Rong Wanli, fame is true Confucianism, June know not?") Two questions. The next piece did not answer directly, but to "situation an article Mountain fight" from the sentence, the Han Nanjian issued a series of praise. This is actually the answer to the question: Han Nanjian is able to tide over the "Jinglun hand", is to know that Ping Rong is the cause of the "true Confucianism."

3, write a good ending:

The end of a word is very important, it is often the finishing touch of the pen. The end sentence to be able to accept the full text, but also thought-provoking, leaving a aftertaste, so the word people attach great importance to it, in the syntax, temperament and special efforts. Jiang Kui said: "A whole in the end sentence, such as cutting Ben Horse." "Isn't much left as if to live a galloping steed, no power, okay? 7 he summed up several scenarios and methods of ending:

(1) "The word is meant to be done", the topic. "The so-called words of the meaning of the word, the rapids of the truncated language, non-predicate poor people also." ”

Liu Kezhuang's "Jade House Spring" (play Lin Push) The first eight sentences, if only look at the first six: "Every year the Prancing horse, Changan City." Guesthouse like to send, green money for wine day our atmosphere, red candle call Lou Sleepless. Easy to pick the words of the Jin women machine, rare jade people under the heart. "It seems that there is little meaning in writing about forgetting the national safety and immersing myself in the brothel drinking of the literati life." However, the author at the end of the word suddenly launched the "man Northwest has Shenzhou, MO Dripping West Bridge tears." "Two sentences, deep sharp, make people chilling reminder, the front six sentence also has landed." The author uses the tail sentence to point out the theme, telling people not to indulge in decadent life and forget the cause of reunification of the Motherland Ah!

(2) "The meaning of the word is endless", cornbread. "If you do not Jen, then the word may not be enough, not the long-term benefit of those who also." ”

Some of the words are at the end of the main point, but the writing is not so exposed. They speak in an image, and appear to be deeper and finer. For example, Su Shi's "Shui Yin" (Nostalgia Zhang Maf Yang Hua ci), all the capital in order to Yang flower than people, write very delicate lingering, everywhere write flowers, but never out of the word "away from people", until the end, said the wind and rain shot down the Yang Hua into the dust, dissolve eight water after the pen, and said, "It is not Yang Flower, point is the tears from the People ", dissected two parts, make people feel cornbread.


In short, poem Ci is a treasure of Chinese culture, profound and subtle. Only by deep research, can the tidbits, write a masterpiece. Any author who is interested in this, when in this endeavor!


The characteristics and the composition of words

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