More than 2000 years ago, a scholar suffered a great humiliation, but "do not fall Lingyun's ambition", with blood for ink, the mind for paper, completed a "historian of the Swan song, no rhyme Li Sao" history masterpiece. This is Sima Qian and his "historical records".
A common historian and a masterpiece, what is it that integrates them into one? Who initiated the "Shiji" of the eternal grand? Who changed the life of Sima Qian?
"Historical records" recorded the Yellow Emperor down to the Han emperor about more than 2000 years of history, the creation of Chinese history of literature precedent. Before the historical records, there were only two types of history books in China, one is chronological, the history is recorded chronologically, the most famous, like "Spring and Autumn" "Zuo Zhuan", and the other is country body, according to the country to record history, such as "national language" "Warring states policy". The so-called biographical is to describe the history with the people as the center, "The historical records" is the first biographical of China. After the "historical records", all the Chinese official history, that is, what we call "histories" are biographical. "Historical records" is the general history of biographical, and the other history are biographical dynastic history, is a dynasty, a dynasty, their own independence.
A masterpiece of unparalleled history
"Shiji" is the first of 24 history, it is obviously higher than other history. The important difference is three points:
First, "Shiji" is full of hate.
Record difficult, full of hate of the record more difficult. Originally, a historian face history, only objectively and fairly to account, not to express feelings; but the historical records are often full of the author's strong hate, especially for some tragic characters, such as "Xiang Yu Chronicles" in Xiang Yu, "Lee General biographies" in the Li Guang, Sima Qian wrote Chine, stirring, and the people who hated him, Like "Ping Jin Hou The Father biographies" in the Shusun, then the text, from different sides to give exposure to attack.
It is worth mentioning that Sima Qian criticized the most sharp of the two people in the historical records: One was the founding emperor of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bang, and his contemporaries, the monarch of the emperor. Sima Qian wrote Liu Bangguang Recruitment, the ultimate achievement of the great cause, but also his narrow-minded, killing hero, language vulgar and many other bad behavior. The revelation of Emperor Wu is relentless. Criticized the founding emperor, denunciations dynasty king, so writing, dealings thousand years, also seldom heard.
Second, "historical records" brilliant literary talent.
"Hongmenyan", one of the fragments of "historical records", was selected as the traditional textbook of Chinese high School for more than half a century, and everyone talked about it's literary charm. Article at the beginning, wrote Xiang Yu "Furious", the performance of Xiang Yu in the Qin dynasty after the death, see his relationship with Liu Bang has been fought by the Allies, to the enemy of the world, political naïve is bemoaned. The whole without let, lifelike, as if a novel, so many people doubt its historical authenticity. In fact, "Hongmenyan" in history is indeed a matter. Throughout the historical records of voluminous 530,000 words, such descriptions, abound. For the characterization of the characters, the description of the scene, and the accounts of the events, Sima Qian showed superb and varied literary skills.
Third, the "historical records" of the civilian perspective.
"No doctor, no ceremony." "Common people history, this is the fixed pattern before the historical records." However, to Sima Qian here, "Art鸡鸣狗盗enemy" of the Apostles also have a place. "Assassin biographies" "Ranger Biographies" "Funny Biographies" "Biographies" is written in the social bottom of the characters, or loyalty, or wisdom, colorful, fun, so that some scholars think these contents is the originator of Chinese popular literature.
Sima Qian is very good at finding common people who are ignored by the historians and who are popular with the general populace. It is the eclectic of the historical records that fills many gaps in the history of ancient Chinese characters. Give me two examples at a given. "The Analects" records Confucius ' words and deeds, Sima Qian in the "historical records" wrote a "Confucius Family", the first complete outline of the life of Confucius, this is so far about Confucius first, but also the most authoritative biography of a person. Chinese people always pay attention to "discuss", so, today to read the Analects of Confucius, first of all to read "Confucian family", understand the life of Confucius, can correctly interpret the Analects. Qu Yuan, for example, he is the first great poet in Chinese history, but before the "historical records", all the books of the pre-Qin period, there is no record of Qu Yuan, some people have to deny the existence of Qu Yuan. Fortunately, the "historical records" of "Qu Yuan Jason Biographies", only to confirm that China has a loyal straight patriotic, nine dead do not regret the Qu Yuan.
Qin nursed First (246), originally a quiet lishan foot suddenly lively up. A group of people in official clothes led a few alchemists, with some strange men walking around the Lishan, the brigade of soldiers will be packed here, so that onlookers can only be seen from afar. Erjian heard inside the mouth of the people saying "curse": What "Wang Yue", "Gua Yun" and so on do not know what the "archaisms", the only two words can understand is "feng shui." There is speculation about this: Alchemists! Feng shui! Is there any big man who has a crush on this place and wants to turn this place into his resting place? The feng shui here is really good: South according to Lishan, endlessly rising peaks, mountain forest Lush, north Linwei water, winding qu turn, silver snake lying, and away from the Qindu Xianyang (present Shaanxi XI ' an) is not too far away, the future descendants of the tribute is also very convenient. But what noble figure can enjoy this treasure? Once again, the question aroused controversy.
"Let me see, this is the grave that the king has repaired to himself!" An old man with a gray beard said.
Impossible Today the King just 14 years old, only last year to the throne, can you so anxious? "Someone retorted.
"That's hard to say. "The old man had a clear lack of confidence in his own speculation, and after throwing this faint retort, he ceased to speak."
"is not to last May just ascended the old king (Prince Qinzhungi chu) repaired ah?" "Another speculation has been made.
"Nonsense, the old king has been dead for almost a year, which has only been buried?" He had long been buried in the lettuce-yang. Again repair grave is not a day two days of things, eldest brother King's body is not iron, which waited so long time? ”
"I do think," said another white-bearded old man, holding down his voice, "This grave is for Dynasty Xiangguo Lu Shangyi (Lü)." ”
"Why?" "This sentence aroused the curiosity of the people around them, crowded into the old side to listen to a thorough."
"Now who's going to say that?" The King of Qin? A 14-year-old child, the hair is not long, which has the speech? Since the Vanta Vondenki, the national power has fallen in the hands of Lu Shangyi. It can be said that now is the world of Lu Shangyi. Lu Shangyi Age is not small, I am afraid to make some plans for their lie next. ”
"This is reasonable," long time not a word of the gray beard elders agree, "I heard that the king is actually the Lu Shangyi of the Guxie, the old king is just White picked up a son." Some people say, the old King is actually by Lu Shangyi and empress to die of gas. ”
"Really fake?" That's not possible, is it? ”
"Haven't you seen the king?" I saw it once last year when he ascended the throne and toured the town. He doesn't look like the old king at all. Although the old king is not good-looking, but there is no saddle nose, chicken breasts bar. The King's Lu Shangyi a bit similar to the next. and Lu Shangyi look at the King's eyes, hey, pour still really a bit to see son's feeling! The king Tube Lu Shangyi called Zhong, I am afraid it is not white call it! ”
"Don't say it, but it's out of your head!" he said. You didn't say anything, and we didn't hear anything. It's almost over, and the soldiers are coming. ”
Days at the foot of the Lishan residents of the speculation of calm past. Those officials after the walk, Lishan at the foot of a lot of prisoners, slaves, a light arm, in the north of Lishan swing shovel dance pickaxe, regardless of winter and summer, are busy. A car of wood from the land, the Weihe River water constantly transported here. Until the Qin nursed 26 years (the first 221), here has preliminarily laid the scale and basic structure of the Mausoleum project.
This 26 for the Chinese land is turned upside down: Qin Nine years (the first 238) September, the mother of the government Zichu wife and lustful disinfectants adultery and gave birth to two sons of scandal unmasked, win political rage, common车裂does lustful disinfectants, exile mother, and anger in the first hand director of the Lü. After courtiers in the Xiequan under, only pressure anger, for a moment, just removed the Lü Xiangguo of the place. Until the first October 2, the 27-year-old won the denounce edict. Lu not Wei Chi crime, poison Suicide, was buried in Henan North.
Lü after death, win the government began unified China's footsteps: Qin nursed 17 years (the first 230), Qin to overcome the Korean all Xinzheng (now Henan Xinzheng), the Korean King of the national surrender, 19 years, the general Wang Jian Broken Zhao, the next year, Yan Prince Dan sent jing Ke Thorn qin failure, win political wrath, as an excuse to attack Yan, 21 years Swallow Thistle City (now Beijing) fell into the Qin hand, 22 years, Qin dug Yellow River levee, the River Weidu girder (today, Kaifeng, Henan), Wei King, on the spot to kill, 24 years, Wang Jian rate little pour Kingdom soldiers, swept the Chu, Chu King forced surrender, 25 years, Qin North, will swallow and Zhao's north escape regime thoroughly strangling; 26 years, Independent helpless Qi in the qin surrounded by a desperate, but eventually can't Stop Qin cavalry, for the Warring States era did a final curtain call.
At this time, the face has been Shing of Emperor Han Xiufen, asked around the historian Sima Qian, how to look at this matter. Sima Qian is not the official, a too history, the official LU only 600 stone, but bluntly to counsel:
First of all, Li Ling is a national (only one of the best people in the country can be called a national)! He was bent on serving the country.
In addition, Li Ling led 5,000 infantry into the Hun hinterland, with tens of thousands of Hun army fought for several days. Though defeated, his exploits were enough to comfort the world.
Again, Li Ling this time by the situation "Zhajiang", he is to stay a life, in the future Jianji repay the Han Dynasty.
Sima Qian has not finished, frankness's words have made Emperor Wu furious, immediately put Sima Qian into prison, set as a capital offense.
Originally this debate is to discuss the matter of Li Ling, why did Emperor Han to anger in Sima Qian?
Originally, Emperor Han appointed Li Guangli to the Huns, this is harboring selfish selfishness, want to let Li Guangli meritorious, oneself good to love concubine Mrs Li sell a favor. However, Li Guangli this rate 30,000 army troops, kill more than 10,000, lost nearly 20,000, such a victory so that the Han emperor could not be sealed. Sima Qian at this time praised Li Ling, in the view of Emperor Han, is to borrow Li Ling to accuse Li Guangli incompetent, satire he misuse Li Guangli.
Sima Qian was jailed and convicted of "framed". Framed the emperor, this is a very serious crime, when the death penalty. Sima Qian's disposition is upright, rashly for Li Ling excuse, provoke catastrophe.
In the age of Emperor Han, there were three options for criminals who violated the death penalty: one was "executed"; the other was to keep money from death; third, to "castration" (refers to castration of men's genitals). Take money to avoid death need 500,000, Sima Qian "home poor, financial bribery not enough redeeming", can not take out 500,000 for their own atonement to die. Therefore, there are only two routes left to choose from: The first is the death penalty, the second is "castration". If the death penalty is chosen, the historical records, which have already begun to be written, will die out, and if the "castration" is accepted, a "man of punishment" will be laughed at by the world people for afraid.
Sima Qian finally chose the castration.
During the Western Han Dynasty, many people were willing to die rather than accept castration. Sima Qian also knows that the humiliation of life is more terrible than the tragic death. Because:
Identity alternative, lifelong humiliation.
Accept castration after, become not eunuch eunuch, again can not into the list of scholar-bureaucrat, this for a bloody man, a well read poetry literati, are the humiliation!
Sima Qian is the most respectable point is, in order to write "Shiji", decidedly choose castration, to bear the limit of the humiliation of life.
"Self-palace" (since please castration) is not only the physical disability, but also the heart of the eternal pain. Since then, humiliation and embarrassment will accompany him throughout his life. In the words of Sima Qian said: "Do not ugly Yu Yu first, and guanxi great castration." After the "self-palace", his intestines all the time in turn, sitting at home in a trance, often do not know where to go out, the thought of "self-palace" of the shame, the back of the sweat immediately soaked clothes (bowel day and nine times, the flowing away quickly if there is death, out of the way, each read the shame, sweat can not hair back dip clothes also).
Only Mingxiang violate, opine.
Sima Qian snob, great ambition. However, "since the palace", even if there is a jade-like talent, sages-like character, but also because of the body of the crime, the punishment of the people, can not be honored by this (although the material is easy-going, the line if the Yi, the end can not be proud). Sima Qian's "only" and "life" formed a great contradiction, so that he felt the cone pain, so that "moving and see, especially, to benefit the anti-loss." There is no reason to be accused of doing things, but it is worse to do something. Can imagine, Sima Qian bear the "self-palace" burden, how lonely wandering, at a loss!
The Great soul has a historical position.
"Since the palace", as the man's Sima Qian died, as the scholar-bureaucrat Sima Qian also died, and the text of the too much history of public freshmen. "New" Tai Shi suddenly have an unprecedented understanding, began to suffer from discrimination, the lowest level of social vision, to look at things, look at life, look at history. For those who are not success or failure, ashes, no Thai strength, sun and moon profit and loss, Sima Qian will inevitably give birth to a kind of compassion sigh and wisdom. Henceforth, in his pen, whether it is Ernvqingchang Xiang Yu, or wily Liu Bang, is the Zhang Qian of the western regions, or anti-Hungarian Jiangong weiqing, is the consort of scheming, or the Han Ti scoffed without traces, all because of the integration of their own understanding and flesh and blood, which is called "into opinion."
After this change of "opinion", we can talk about it from several aspects.
1. The concept of life and death.
The famous saying "people inherent a death, death has is extremely heavy, or feather" originated from Sima Qian "newspaper Ren an book". And the "historical records" of the heavy, also is extremely heavy. Sima Qian put humiliation, life and death in the brain, the achievements of the history books in the "King", but also made a "is extremely heavy" life choice.
"Shiji" has an article "Dibu biographies" wrote:
Dibu originally was a member of Xiang Yu Tiger Generals, repeatedly defeated Liu Bang, Liu Bang hated him. After the defeat of Xiang Yu, Liu Bang rewarded the daughter to seize Dibu, and announced: Dare to harbor the season cloth to destroy three families. Dibu hid in the time of the heroes of the house as slaves. Zhu Jia in order to rescue Dibu, personally to the capital to meet Liu Bang most trusted too servant Xiahou. Zhu said to Xiahou: "Two of the main body, each of its lord." Dibu, as the subordinate of Xiang Yu, was conscientious, and that was his duty. Can the Emperor kill all the lieges of Xiang Yu? Now, the emperor just got the world to report vendetta, how can show a broad bosom? Really Dibu force, he fled to the north of the Huns or the South more people, is not to take the army to support the Han enemy? After Liu Bang heard, immediately pardoned Dibu, and sealed Dibu for the herbalist (Emperor's attendants). Hanwhiti, Dibu when the middle Lang will, stop the troops to Hun after Lu. Emperor Wen, Dibu also served as the Hedong magistrate, became Han Dynasty generation Ming Chen.
At the end of "Dibu biographies", Sima Qian said: "In the name of the famous man like Xiang Yu, Dibu can show his fame by his bravery, and he can be called a hero." But what a disgrace it is for Dibu to be a slave in the house of Zhujiajiao in order to save his life! Why does Dibu not choose to die? Because he thinks he has a talent, he does not treat humiliation as a disgrace, but hopes to be able to fully display his talents someday. (Xiang Yu's qi and Dibu to Yong Hin Yuchu, Body Sandals Code Army, Samuel Flag number of people, is a hero. However, the punishment timestamp, the slave and not die, how the next! He will be conceited, so humiliated and not ashamed, want to use its not enough, so the end for Han will! ）
It can be seen that Sima Qian's cognition and evaluation of Dibu is based on his personal experience. "The day will drop the big Ren Also, must first bitter his mind, labor its bones." "Lifelong pursuit, fear humiliation?" Can be a great event, at this point, exception.
2. The concept of money.
When Sima Qian faced castration, there was another option--to atone for money. During the emperor period, many generals who had participated in the war against Hungary were convicted of death. Sima Qian had no 500,000 money and was brutally castration, which made Sima Qian have a new view of money.
Sima Qian inherited the thought of Xunzi and admitted that people pursue the legitimacy of material interests, and put forward a series of very practical views.
"The historical records of the biographies" think: The Pursuit of wealth is human nature. Sima Qian said: The world is busy, all for the pursuit of benefits. Owning a land of kings, but also not enough to be rich, not to mention the people of the world? The world is're awfully, all for the benefit of all. The king of thousands of times, the Hou, hundred rooms of the monarch, still suffering from poverty, bright bastard the people of the household? ）
Our national tradition has always been the re-righteousness of the Light, Confucianism advocates fortunate, the words of profit will be despised by people. Confucius in the Confucian Analects, Yong also has a famous saying:
Zi Yue: Yin Zai, back also! A Songaksan food, a scoop drink, in the back alley, people unbearable its worry, return also do not change its music. Yin Zai, back also.
Confucius appreciated Ginghuian in the poor, but also denigrating the material desires and money. However, no clothes do not eat, what to talk about etiquette and shame! Sima Qian seems to have some insight, in Chinese history, for the first time made clear that people pursue material interests is justified, as long as it is "take the proper way"!
3. Sharp and profound.
Sima Qian portrays historical figures, penetrating, because Sima Qian has read many historical figures from his own experience, and he has read many things that he didn't know deeply in the past.
The historian has always been very awe-North Korea Emperor, Sima Qian is an exception. Emperor Ten years (the first 197), Chen Yu was forced to rebel. Liu Bang Pro-rate Army counter-insurgency, Lu after the use of Chen Yu incident to kill Han Xin. Liu Bang learned that Han Xin "treason" was a post-mortem, sent people worship Prime Minister Xiao for Xiangguo, sealed Xiao 5,000 households, also sent 500 soldiers as security guards. Wenwubaiguan learned that Shenhoga seal, have come to congratulate. The Original Qin Dynasty Hou Ping but came to Condole. Juan Ho surprised, asked why. Call Ping said: Xiangguo of the disaster began! You want to, why the emperor outside camped counter-insurgency, you were ordered to guard the Guanzhong, not be suffering from the war, but was sealed? Because Han Xin just treason, the emperor suspected you also have a counter-intention, so seal you. I hope you will not accept any worrier and donate all the money as military expenditure, the emperor must be very happy. Xiao to follow the plan quickly. How did Liu Bang react to Xiao's practice? "Historical records" in "Shang family" wrote four words: Shang is a grand Yue.
Who is Xiao? He was Liu Bang early in PEI's boss, always to Liu Bang care. Liu Bang revolted anti-Qin, Xiao led the whole tribe has been following Liu Bang. Liu Bang when the Emperor, the hero of the letter, ministers advocate Cao Shen Credit first, but Liu Bang insisted Xiao credit first. Liu Bang said that all the heroes are Hounds (dogs), but Xiao is the hunter who command the Hounds (work). (Gotti Yue: The Hunter, kill the Beast Rabbit Dog Also, and Faching orc person also. Now the gentlemen are able to get the beast ears and the dogs, and the Xiao, the Faching, and the men. Visible, Liu Bang to xiao how much trust! But, after the Han Xin incident, Liu Bang to Xiao also not relieved. "Shang is Grand Yue" four words vividly wrote Liu Bang to the founding hero of the suspicion of the heart. The analysis of a founding emperor's mind so profound, 24 history of the only "historical records" can do!
Tang people Liu Zhiyu said, writing history to have "three": Respecting, historiography, history, knowledge. Among them, the most important is the knowledge of history. History is the soul of historical books, and the history books without souls are just the stuffing of materials. "The historical records" is inseparable from Sima Qian's father Sima talk about the pioneering work, can not do without Sima Qian read thousands of books to the road and UBM broad knowledge; However, all this is not enough to cast Sima Qian compiling's great soul. It is the misfortune of Sima Qian to differentiate Sima Qian from all other historians and make the historian different from all the other history books. It was this unfortunate encounter that created the history of Sima Qian and made the greatness of Sima Qian.
Before suffering castration, Sima Qian was bent on being an emperor's loyal, Darling (the knowledge of the guests, forget the house of the industry, day and night exhausted its unworthy of the timber force, service One Heart camp, in order to kiss the Lord), but, after the castration, he was reduced to eunuch-like embarrassment, was expelled from the social Orthodox list. At this point, he no longer pedantic, no longer conform, and began to have some doubts, have a full of personal will insight and courage, immortal "historical records" turned out.
The harm of Emperor Wu to Sima Qian changed the fate of Sima Qian's life, and also made a great historian and an outstanding historical work. This let Sima Qian life than die and die and then born of the emperor, in the end is disregard or tianwei difficult to test? How do you get to the top of the power with such a complicated struggle?
"Historical records" for the 24 history of the first and other history is significantly higher than the