X86 processor-x86 Processor Architecture

Source: Internet
Author: User
2.1 General Concepts

1. The central processor unit (CPU) contains registers and what other basic elements?

    • TheClockSynchronizes the internal operations of the CPU with other system components. The clock synchronizes internal CPU operations and other system components.
    • TheControl Unit(Cu) coordinates the sequencing of steps involved in executing machine instructions. The Control Unit coordinates the steps in the machine instructions.
    • TheArithmetic logic unit(ALU) performs arithmetic operations such as addition and subtraction and logic operations such as and, or, and not. an arithmetic logical unit performs arithmetic operations, such as addition, subtraction, and logical operations, such as and, or, not.

2. The central processor unit is connected to the rest of the computer system using what three buses?

    • Data Bus. Data Bus.
    • Control bus. control bus.
    • Address Bus. Address Bus.

3. Why does memory access take more machine cycles than register access? Why access to memory requires more machine cycles than registers.

Conventional memory is ouside the CPU and it responds more slowly to access requests. Registers are hard-wired inside the CPU.

Traditional memory is outside the CPU, and the access response is slow. Registers are inside the CPU.

4. What are the three basic steps in the instruction execution cycle? What are the three basic steps for executing a command cycle?

    • Fetch. FETCH Command.
    • Decode. Decode.
    • Execute. Execute.

5. Which two additional steps are required in the instruction execution cycle when a memory operand is used? What are the two additional steps of the instruction execution cycle when the memory operand is used?

    • Fetch operands. returns the operand.
    • Store output operand. stores the results.

6. During which stage of the instruction execution cycle is the program counter incremented? The stage of the instruction execution cycle,ProgramCounter growth.

Fetch step. Obtain the instruction step.

7. When a program runs, what information does the OS read from the filename's disk directory entry? When the program is running, what information does the operating system read from the hard disk directory?

Filename, file size, and starting location on the disk. file name, file size, and start position on the disk.

8. After a program has been loaded into memory, how does it begin execution? After the program is loaded into the memory, how do I start execution?

The OS executes a branch (like a goto) to the first machine instruction in the program. The operating system executes a jump command (similar to goto) and forwards it to the first machine command of the program.

9. Define multitasking. Describes multiple tasks.

The CPU executes multiple tasks (programs) by rapidly switching from one program to the next. This gives the impression that all programs are executing at the same time.

Cpuc quickly switches between multiple tasks to execute multiple tasks. This gives us the feeling that all programs are executed at the same time.

10. What is the function of the OS scheduler? What is the role of operating system debugging programs?

The OS scheduler determines how much time to allot to each task, and it switches between tasks.

Determine the time assigned to each task and switch between tasks.

11. When the processor switches form one task to another, what values in the first task's State must preserved? When a processor switches from one task to another, the status of the first task needs to be retained.

The program counter, the task's variables, and the CPU registers (including the Status flags). Program counters, task variables and CPU registers (including status signs ).

12. What is the duration of a single clock cycle in a 3-ghz processor? How long does a 3-GHz processor have a clock cycle?


2.2 X86 architecture details

1. What are the x86 processor's three basic modes of operation? What is the basic operating mode of X86?

    • Protected Mode. protection mode. In protection mode, all commands and features can be used. The program is allocated a separate memory area, called a segment. The processor prohibits the program from referencing memory outside the allocated segments.
    • Real-address mode. Real address mode. The real address mode implements the programming environment of the 8086 processor and some additional features, such as switching to other modes. Windows 98 can use this mode, which can be used to run MS-DOS programs that require access to system memory and hardware devices. A program running in real address mode may cause the operating system to crash (stop responding ).
    • System Management Mode. system management mode. Provides the operating system to implement functions similar to power management and system security. These functions are generally implemented by computer manufacturers.

2. Name all eight 32-bit general-purpose registers. Indicate all 8 32-bit General registers.


3. Name all six segment registers. Specify all six segment registers.

CS, DS, SS, es, FS, GS

4. What special purpose does the ECX register serve? What are the special functions of ECx registers?

Loop counter. loop counter.

5. Besides the stack pointer (ESP), what other register points to variables on the stack? In addition to the stack pointer (ESP), which register points to the variables on the stack?


6. name at least four CPU Status flags. indicates at least four CPU status signs.

    • the carry flag (CF). Is set when the reslt of an unsigned armetic operation is too large to fit into destination.
    • the overflow flag (of). Is set when the result of an signed armetic operation is too large or too small to fit into the destination.
    • the sign flag (SF). Is set when the result of an arithmetic or logical operation generates a negative result.
    • the zero flag (ZF). Is set when the result of an arithmetic or logical operation generates a result of zero.
    • the auxiliary carry flag (AC). Is set when an arithmetic operation causes a carry from bit 3 to bit 4 in an 8-bit operand.
    • the parity flag (PF) is set if the least-significant byte in the result contains an even number of 1 bits. otherwise, PF is clear. in general, it is used for error checking when there is a possibility that data might be altered or reset upted.

7. Which flag is set when the result of an unsigned arithmetic operation is too large to fit into the destination?


8. Which flag is set when the result of a signed arithmetic operation is either too large or too small to fit into the destination?


9. Which flag is set when an arithmetic or logical operation generates a negative result?


10. Which part of the CPU performs floating-point arighmetic?

Floating-point unit.

11. How many bits long are the FPU data registers? How many BITs is the length of the data register of a floating point operation unit?


12. Which intel processor was the first member of the IA-32 family?

The intel 80386.

13. Which intel processor first introduced superscalar execution? Which intel processor first introduces excessive execution?


14. Which intel processor first used MMX technology? Which intel processor first uses MMX technology?

The Pentium II.

15. Describe the CISC design approach. Describe the CISC design method.

CISC means Complex Instruction Set: a large collection of instructions, some of which perform sophisticated operations that might be typical of high-level language.

CISC indicates a Complex Instruction Set: a large set of commands, some of which may be complex operations unique to advanced languages.

16. Describe the RISC design approach. Describe the design method of the Proteus.

Reduced means reduced instruction set: a small set of simple (atomic) instructions that may be combined into more complex operations.

Reduced Instruction sets: a small set of commands consisting of simple (atomic) commands that can be combined into more complex operations.

2.3 x86 Memory Management

1. What is the range of addressable memory in protected mode? What is the addressing range in the protection mode?

4 Gbyte (0 to ffffffffh ).

2. What is the range of addressable memory in real-address mode? What is the addressing range in real mode?

1 Mbyte (0 to fffffh ).

3. The two ways of describing an address in real-address mode are segment-offset and what? In real mode, the two methods to describe an address are segment offset addresses and what?

Linear (absolute). Linear (absolute) address.

4. In real-address mode, convert the following hexadecimal segment-offset address to a linear address: 0950: 0100.

09600 H.

5. In real-address mode, convert the following hexadecimal segment-offset address to a linear address: 0cd1: 02e0.


6. In MASM's memory at segmentation model, how many BITs hold the address of an instruction or variable? In the smooth segmentation model of MASM, what are the addresses of commands or variables?


7. In protected mode, which register references the descriptor for the stack segment? Which register references the stack segment descriptor in protection mode.


8. In protected mode, which table contains pointers to memory segments used by a single program? In protection mode, which table contains a pointer to the memory segment used by a single program.

Local Descriptor Table (LDT ).

9. In the procedure at segmentation model, which table contains pointers to at least two segments? In the flat section model, a table contains pointers pointing to at least two segments.

Global Descriptor Table (gdt). Two segments referCodeAnd data segments.

10. What is the main advantage to using the paging feature of X86 processors? What are the main advantages of using the x86 processor page feature?

The total size of all programs loaded into memory can exceed the amount of physical memory installed in the computer.

The size of all programs loaded into the memory can exceed the size of the installed physical memory.

11. Can you think of a reason why MS-DOS was not designed to support protected-Mode Programming?

12. In real-address mode, demonstrate two segment-offset addresses that point to the same linear address.

2.4 components of typical x86 computers

1. Describe SRAM and its most common use. Describes SRAM and its most common uses.

SRAM is an acronym for static RAM. It is used primarily for expensive, high-speed cache memory. It does not have to be refreshed. CPU cache memory is cmprised of SRAM.

The full name of SRAM is static RAM. It is mainly used for expensive and high-speed cache storage. It is a kind of memory with static access function. It can store its internal storage data without refreshing the circuit. DRAM needs to be refresh and recharged at intervals, otherwise internal data will disappear.

2. Describe VRAM. Describes VRAM.

VRAM (Video RAM) holds displayable video data. When CRT monitors are used, VRAM is dual ported, allowing one port to continuously refresh the display while another port writes data to the display.

VRAM saves the displayed video data. When a CRT display is used, VRAM is dual-port, allowing one port to refresh and the other port to write the data to be displayed.

3. List at least two features found in the Intel p965 express chipset. list features of at least two Intel p965 express chipsets.

It is used in desktop PCs, with either an Intel Core 2 duo or Pentium D processor. features:

    • Intel fast memory access uses an updated memory controller Hub (MCH). It can access dual-channel DDR2 memory, at an 800 MHz clock speed.
    • An I/O controller Hub (Intel ich8/R/DH) uses Intel matrix Storage Technology (MST) to support six Serial ATA devices (disk drives ).
    • Support for 10 USB ports, six PCI Express slots, networking, Intel quiet system technology.
    • A high definition auto chip provides Digital Sound capabilities.

4. Name four types of Ram mentioned in this chapter.

    • Dynamic RAM.
    • Static RAM.
    • Video RAM.
    • Cmos ram.

5. Which type of Ram is used for Level 2 cache memory? What type of Ram does Level 2 Cache use?

Static RAM.

6. What advantages does a USB device offer over a standard serial or parallel device? What are the advantages of Ust compared with traditional serial and parallel devices?

The computer can query a device connected via USB to find out its name and device type and type of driver it supports. the computer can also suspend power to individual devices. none of these capabilities is possible with serial and parallel ports.

A computer can ask a device connected by USB to obtain its name, device type, and supported driver type. The computer can also suspend power supply for a device. Traditional serial and parallel ports do not provide these functions.

7. What is the purpose of the 8259a PIC controller? What is the role of the 8259a PIC controller?

The 8259a programmable hardware controller (PIC) handles external interrupts from hardware devices, such as the keyboard, system clock, and disk drives. These devices interrupt the CPU and make it process their requests immediately.

The 8259a PIC Programmable Interrupt Controller handles external interruptions from hardware devices, such as keyboards, system clocks, and disk drives. These devices interrupt the cpu so that the CPU can immediately process their requests.

8. What are the main differences between Wi-Fi and Bluetooth? What are the main differences between Wi-Fi and Bluetooth?

Bluetooth is a wireless communication protocol for exchanging small amounts of data over short distances. it is commonly used with mobile devices such as phones and PDAs. wi-Fi devices operate at a grater speed and capacity then Bluetooth. wi-Fi devices often communicate with each other when in the range of a wireless network.

Bluetooth is a wireless communication protocol that exchanges a small amount of data at short distances. It is usually used on mobile devices, such as phones and PDAs. Wi-Fi devices are faster and larger than Bluetooth devices. Wi-Fi devices generally communicate with each other on wireless websites.

2.5 Input/Output System

1. Of the four levels of input/output in a computer system, which is the most universal and portal? Which of the four layers of computer system input and output is the most common and portable.

The application program level.

Application level.

2. What characteristics distinguish BIOS-level input/output? What are the characteristics of BIOS-level input/output?

BiOS functions communicate directly with the system hardware. They are independent of the operating system.

The BIOS directly communicates with the system hardware. These are independent of the operating system.

3. Why are device drivers necessary, given that the BIOS already has code that communicates with the computer's hardware? The device driver is required because the BIOS can communicate with computer hardware.

New devices are subject Ted all the time with capabilities that were often not anticipated when the BIOS was written.

Because new devices are constantly invented, some of their features are unpredictable when writing BIOS.

4. In the example regarding displaying a string of characters, which level exists between the operating system and the video controller card?

The Bois level.

5. at which level (s) can an assembly language program manipulate input/output? At what levels can an assembly language operate on input and output?

The operating system, bios, and hardware levels.

Operating System, bios, and hardware level.

6. Why do game programs often send their sound output directly to the sound card's Hardware ports?

Game programs often try to take advantage of the latest features in specialized sound cards. it shoshould be noted that MS-DOS game applications were more prone to do this than games running under MS-Windows. in fact, Windows-NT, 2000, and XP all prevent applications from directly accessing system hardware.

7. Is it likely that the BIOS for a computer running MS-Windows wocould be different from that used by a computer running Linux?

No. the same BIOS wocould work for both operating systems. compute computer owners install two or three operating systems on the same computer. they wowould certainly not want to change the system BIOS every time they rebooted the computer.

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