Advanced Linux Routing and Traffic Control: NetFilter and Iproute

So far we have learned how Iproute works, and have mentioned netfilter many times. Here, you can just take the opportunity to see Rusty's notoriously unreliable guide. NetFilter itself can be found here. NetFilter allows us to filter packets or tamper with the packet header. A special feature is that we can put a digital tag on the packet. You can use the--set-mark mechanism. For example, this command has all the packets sent to 25/TCP (outgoing mail) ...

Rookie 96 Linux Operating skills (second)

This is the rookie must be 96 kinds of Linux operating skills of the next chapter, if you do not understand the content of the next article, you can click on the "rookie must have 96 Linux operating skills (on)" link to view! 51. display file type use command file to let you know whether a file is an elf-formatted executable, a shell script file, or any other format. File filehttp://www.aliyun.com/zixun/aggregation/11696 ...

Linux file and Directory Operations Basic command: Tail command

The opposite of the head command is the tail command. With the tail command, you can view the 10 lines at the end of the file. This helps you view the last ten lines of the log file to read important system messages. You can also use tail to observe the process of updating log files. With the-f option, tail automatically displays new messages from the open file to the screen in real time. For example, to instantly observe/var/log/messages changes, type the following command at the shell prompt as root: tail ...

Advanced Linux Routing and Traffic control: Multi-NIC Load Balancing

There are several ways to achieve this function. One of the simplest and most straightforward methods is "TEQL"-True (or "normal") link equalization. Like most things done with queues, http://www.aliyun.com/zixun/aggregation/13996.html "> Load balancing needs to be implemented in both directions." Both ends of the link must be involved to have a complete effect. Imagine the following: A and B are routers, and we certainly assume that they are all Linux machines. If you send from Network 1 to ...

96 Linux Operating skills required (first)

Today, the editor of the Wind network for Linux rookie to bring 96 kinds of practical operation of Linux, the necessary skills, hard to learn, you can make Linux rookie also mastered some must kill skills! For details, let's look down. 1. View man file ... Nroff-man man/libnet.3 | Pager Sometimes the man file is not in the system directory. This is the way to view the nonstandard man file 2. Run the program as a different user ... su-userhttp://www ...

Linux file and directory Operations basic commands: Head command

You can use the Head command to see the beginning of a file. This command is: Head <filehttp://www.aliyun.com/zixun/aggregation/11696.html ' >name> Head is a useful command, but since it is limited to the first few lines of the file, You can't see how long the file actually is. By default, you can only read the first 10 lines of the file. You can change the number of rows to display by specifying a number option ...

Advanced Linux Routing and Traffic Control: Queue rules for bandwidth management

Now, when I figure it out, I'm really surprised. Linux 2.2/2.4 can manage bandwidth as well as the highest-end dedicated bandwidth management systems. Even better than frame Relay and ATM. To avoid conceptual clutter, TC uses the following rules to describe bandwidth: mbps = http://www.aliyun.com/zixun/aggregation/12560.html ">1024 kbps = 1024 * 1024 bps = ...

Linux file and directory Operations basic commands: Clear command and Cat command

The clear command clears the terminal window. Cat is a shorthand for concatenate (chain), meaning merging files. This command can display the contents of a file (often used with more), or combine multiple files into one file.

Advanced Linux Routing and traffic control: multicast routing

Multicast-howto is already very old (relatively), and inaccurate and even mistaken for 21136.html "> Reader. Before you start multicast routing, you need to reconfigure your Linux kernel to support the type of multicast routing you want to implement. This step requires you to decide what type of multicast route to use. There are basically four kinds: DVMRP (multicast version of the RIP Unicast Protocol), MOSPF (similarly, just OSPF), PIM ("Pr ...").

Linux file and Directory Operations Basic command: Locate command

Sometimes you know that a file or directory exists, but you don't know where to find it. You can use the Locate command to search for files or directories. Using the Locate command, you will see each directory or file that includes the search criteria. For example, if you want to search for files with the word finger in all names, type: The Locate finger locate command uses a database to locate files and directories with the word finger in the directory name. This search result may include a name called ...

Linux file and Directory Operations Basic command: RM command

It is easy to create a file in Liunx so that there are any files that are at any time in the system, and users can delete them with the RM command. This command deletes the file or directory itself from the directory, and for the linked file, only the link is deleted and the original file remains unchanged. http://www.aliyun.com/zixun/aggregation/18137.html > options for deleting files and directories include:-i-interaction. Prompt you to confirm the deletion. This option will help you avoid accidentally deleting files ...

Linux file and Directory Operations basic command: LS command

Use the LS command to display the contents of your current directory. The LS command has many options available. To see all the options for the LS command, you can read the instructions page by typing man ls at the shell prompt. The following is a short list of some common options used with LS. Comma all. Enumerates all the files in the directory, including hidden files (. filehttp://www.aliyun.com/zixun/aggregation/11696.h ...

Linux file and Directory Operations Basic command: PWD command

The pwd command represents "Print sharable directory" (print working directory). When you type PWD, you are asking your Linux system to display your current position. For example: [Root@teacher apache]# Pwd/tmp/apache indicates that you are currently in the/tmp/apache directory.

Instructions for using Process management commands in Linux

Kill this command terminates a program. For example: [root@teacherroot]# kill 3793 Base:kill: (3793)-Not that process PS This command is used to display the state of the program. Examples are as follows: [root@teacherroot]# PS PID TTY time CMD 3644 pts/0 Unlimited bash 3852 pts/0 unlimited PS [root@teac ...

Linux file and directory operations basic commands: CD command

cd command to change the working directory. For example: the command function CD ~ will send you back to your login directory CD/Take you to the root directory of the entire system cd/root take you to the root user's home directory; You must be a root user to access the directory Cd/home take you to the home directory where the user's login directory is usually stored on CD. Move up one level directory Cd/dir1/subdirfoo no matter which directory you are in, this absolute path will take you directly to Subdirfo ...

Use of RPM and RPM commands in Linux

Installing and uninstalling software is a necessary operation during the course of any operating system we use. Linux has a package manager called RPM. It can be used to install, query, verify, delete, update the RPM format package. Usually the RPM format package file uses. rpm for the extension. Although the RPM package is a software installation package, it does not work like a double-click on the installation file in Windows. There is a command called RPM in Linux that can use multiple parameters to install and query the RPM package 、...

Instructions for using Network management related commands in Linux

FTP This command is a standard file transfer protocol for the http://www.aliyun.com/zixun/aggregation/18676.html "> User interface, is the most simple and efficient way to transfer files on a TCP/IP network. Host This command is used for DNS queries. Hostname This command to display or set the host name of the system. Mail mail commands are used to send and receive messages. RSH rsh (remote shell) life ...

Linux uses commands to copy, move, and delete files

Now, I've created two new folders in my/root directory, one is/root/aaa the other is/root/bbb. There are 5 text files in the/root/aaa. 1.txt, 2.txt, 3.txt, 4.txt, 5.txt respectively. 1.txt file content is "This is a 1.txt file." 2.txt file content is "This is a 2.txt file." , and so on. The/ROOT/BBB folder is empty. We are now ...

Instructions for using the Network Management command ping in Linux

This command can be used to test whether the computer and other computers on the network are connected. For example: [root@teacherroot]# ping 192.168.5.7 ping 192.168.5.7 (192.168.5.7) bytes of data. From 192.168.5.14 icmp_sep=1 destination Host unreachable from 192.168.5.14 ic ...

Install partitions with mount command in Linux

Now we're going to introduce a command "mount" that is very important in Linux. This command is used to mount each partition on the hard disk to a folder in the root partition, or it can be called an installation file system. Some Linux distributions default to partitions other than the root partition, such as "RedHat 9". There is, of course, an exception to a swap partition called "swap." Also, some Linux distributions can automatically mount all Windows partitions after the system is installed, such as "Red Flag 5.0". In our study ...

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