Cloud Computing 2.0 is the cloud that shifts from electronics to commerce.
Just as the centre of information shifts from technology to business, cloud computing will also experience a shift from technology to business. In this process, cloud computing will shift from 1.0 times to 2.0 times.
Cloud Computing 2.0 refers to the virtualization of objects, from technical resources, to commercial resources. The data assets that the cloud reconstructs and shares, computing capabilities such as computing and storage, turning to business computing capabilities such as customer relationships, sales, business data mining, and end-to-end diversification applications, from technical applications such as it and IT operations, to business applications such as management and entertainment.
The shift in cloud computing from 1.0 to 2.0 is essentially the shift of the dominant power from the cloud supplier to the cloud of demand. More important, this will be the shift from technology to people-oriented. Once cloud computing has escaped from the hands of the technology almighty, the next step is to turn to the right thing.
Cloud 1.0 's arrogance and flaws
Technical omnipotence often have a natural arrogance that technology is omnipotent and business revolves around technology. Cloud computing was initially initiated by such a group of people.
Over the past 10 years, companies such as Google have developed software that can run on multiple incompatible servers at the same time, allowing the software to float between different devices, like the cloud. Not until 2006, when Google CEO Eric Schmidt named it "Cloud Computing" (cloud computing), said, "I don't think most people are aware of the huge opportunities lurking there." ”
The first to sniff out a chance to make money is those it hardware and software giants. Response for a time. Why are these Big Macs active? The combination of the background is not difficult to understand. It comes at a time when the global IT hardware and software investment is relatively concentrated, when the international financial crisis, enterprises feel upfront waste, to reduce IT investment. It giants in order to maintain business, in the IT procurement market, nature has a motive to publicize this new truth: The Enterprise's own hardware has been voted almost, the next step should be put money into a new direction. Future upgrades will focus on the hardware in the cloud, through the virtualization integration of resources, on-demand calls, enterprises can save redundant construction. Companies have already invested a lot, listen to this, but also doubt the intention to pay further upgrades.
Cloud computing has been driven by external forces, one night as if the current version of the world trend, Shunzhi, Mighty. All the things that sell money, start to put the cloud of the label, into this basket.
Some people see that the business is driven by self-interest, saying that cloud computing is a hoax. Just because there is a commercial interest, it is not necessarily objective to say that a technique is not good. Business interests point to the choice of a technology, which is just the only way to transform technology into productive forces. The role of business choice in technological evolution, as natural selection is to biological evolution, subjectively not noble, objectively understandable. Cloud computing technology itself is really good, users trust advanced productivity more understandable.
The problem is that it vendors push a technology, often from the ego, and therefore exaggerate the technical role. Manufacturers may not be able to see that users have the technical readiness of the business needs, but only if they do not transform the provision of business services, to guide cloud computing in this direction, there is no real benefit to them selling things. This has created the most serious misleading from the state to the cloud, the exclusively technology orientation and the hidden vendor orientation. It seems that as long as the cloud to invest money will be good, only ask technology, only ask input, do not ask business, do not ask the actual effect.
In the history of Enterprise Informatization, this scene has appeared in the past. Under the guidance of the supplier, the information technology is separated from the application, and the technology and equipment are emphasized. The enterprise informatization, simply boils down to the CPU speed question, the modem rate question. This supplier-oriented subtext is: Corporate spending is about me, and I want you to believe that the more you spend, the better. It's your business to make money. The supplier thinks so, of course, it can be understood. But users, including countries and businesses, follow the same line and think of cloud computing as something unrelated to the business itself.
The flaw of cloud Computing 1.0 is that the trinity of technology-oriented, supplier-oriented and input-oriented, dominates our cloud computing planning, cloud computing, and makes cloud computing a bottomless pit of money, but does not see the connection to business benefits.
Proposition 2.0: Profitable cloud computing
Negative supplier orientation, not denying the supply of cloud computing, cloud computing is still in the ready phase, need to expand investment rather than reduce input, to deny that there is no demand for supply, and not to deny cloud computing providers, suppliers to advertise themselves, we want the interests of users also have voice expression Or even do not completely deny the initial construction phase of a certain degree of supplier orientation, because they will play a certain role in the Enlightenment. Negative supplier orientation, mainly from the point of view of supply and demand to reposition cloud computing, so that cloud computing more positive development. For the misleading of suppliers, cloud Computing 2.0 advocates a cost-effective cloud computing from users.
1, Cloud Computing 2.0 requirements of business focus changes
Cloud Computing 1.0 of the business is mainly limited to the first information sector (information industry) and the second information sector (that is, the IT department of all walks of life), Cloud Computing 2.0 of the business will be in-depth to all walks of life itself, and business depth integration of various industries.
Now casually open a book about cloud computing, talking about computing virtualization, storage and server. This is the characteristics of the early development of technology application is not very mature period. At this stage, it seems that technology is just a matter of technical personnel, cloud computing is only a technical department thing. The historical experience of Enterprise Informatization shows that after this stage, it will be the phase from IT department to the business unit (first management, then the main business unit).
Cloud computing focuses on the IT and business sectors, and the content of the cloud business itself will be significantly different. The current cloud computing, including the planned cloud computing, is just the cloud in the meaning of IT business. For government and enterprise applications, load balancing, data hosting, things like this are just internal affairs of the Information Center. Some central enterprises, even if the information input to 5 billion, is only a fraction of the business income. Not to save a few hard drives, save a few electricity and deserve to be a big deal (on the contrary, security concerns). If cloud computing is just for it savings (such as making fat terminals a thin terminal), businesses might want to compress spending rather than invest more.
Cloud Computing 2.0 refers to the cloud computing that focuses on the business unit. This cloud computing is not likely to be more than 1.0 nights in time, but it has been overshadowed by the vendor's big-Mac campaign. Typical of Salesforce.com. The company has always defined its business as "providing enterprise applications through network services", "Online customer relationship Management" and "on-demand business services". Until 2007, when CEO Benioff (Marc Benioff) heard the word cloud computing from a magazine, he realized that he was the real cloud. CRM is a business unit, and when Salesforce.com takes CRM instead of load balancing as the main business of cloud computing, the real change occurs to the enterprise. This time, it is not just the information sector that cares about cloud computing, it becomes the business unit of the business. The cloud player, the pioneer of cloud computing, has put music on the cloud, making it easier for consumers to play on phones, PCs or Apple devices, and there is no copyright dispute. Here, the business of cloud computing is not it, it is the music itself.
For cloud computing providers, if they can't adapt to the 1.0-to-2.0 shift, they will soon fall into a hardware price war and lose high-end opportunities. Moving from it hardware and solutions to delivering services that combine it with business in all walks of life should be their next step.
2. Cloud Computing 2.0 requires the leader to change
The change of the leader is reflected in the decision of the information budget. In the computer age, the leader of Enterprise Informatization, from the information center of the ready stage, to the business unit in the deep application and transformation phase. At Baosteel, for example, the decision not to go on a informatization project, the business unit vote is higher than the information department's voting rights. Business-independent projects are difficult to pass. Cloud 2.0 will also evolve in this direction, initially the Information department decided not to go to the cloud computing project, and later will become the business unit to decide.
The business unit is primarily concerned with cloud computing in the business sense, not just in the IT sense. In this view, our existing definitions of cloud computing (many from the storage and other technical layer to start to define), inevitably separated by a layer. Remember when the government, one time, the Secretary pointed to the information demand questionnaire questioned the computer to investigate the use of the brand, using Dell (Micro-BO) PC or Lenovo PC, is the word typed what is the difference? This is the difference between the technical and business aspects of the problem. For cloud Computing 2.0, whether it is the enterprise to put forward a strategy, or the government issued policies, planning, should pay attention to the direction, to avoid the technical significance of this technology, but the business of meaningless problems, otherwise it will lose the dominant power.
The policy implication of cloud Computing 2.0 lies in correcting technology orientation, advocating deep integration and deep application, correcting supplier orientation, avoiding investment waste in e-commerce and e-government, correcting input-oriented, avoiding local government and unscrupulous merchants to engage in real estate by cloud computing, asking only for input without asking for output.
After cloud computing has entered the 2.0 era, the definition of cloud computing, will become more and more from engineers to businessmen; the decider of cloud computing will become more and more of the head of the business unit from the director of information centers; The advocates of cloud computing will change from supplier to entrepreneur and consumer, and the makers of cloud computing will shift from technology to business.
3, Cloud Computing 2.0 requirements Platform changes
Once cloud computing from 1.0 main development to 2.0 mainly, platform center of gravity will also transfer. At present, 1.0 of cloud computing has not been completed, its platform focus, mainly on the technical infrastructure, technology platform and Technical software, the formation of ICT based I, p and S. In the 2.0 era, the focus of the cloud platform will be shifted to business infrastructure, business platforms and business software to form a cloud platform for government, business and consumer applications.
1.2.0 of IaaS. IaaS provides hydro-electric gas in the information age. In the 1.0 era, "water electric" mainly refers to the virtualization of storage capacity, computing power and pipeline capacity (the protagonist is usually the operator). In the 2.0 era, "water and electricity" will be mainly integrated data capabilities (large data, pervasive computing, unified communications). The data Center (IDC), which is mainly based on exchange and trusteeship, will be transformed into an information centre based on original data processing.
From a business rather than a technical point of view, the main problem in the future is the primary data management in the large data age. The public data mastered by the government has the problem of opening to the society, on the other hand, it faces the protection of the original data. There is also a problem of balance between development and protection for the personal raw data that business organizations keep at the IaaS level. The original commercial data of Alibaba (Weibo) is only "visible" in the situation. Like the liquor, was developed by the "second Hand", and the liquid itself is protected, can not be fully crawled. Boltzmann believes that personal information should only be kept locally, "Using someone else's server to do your own calculations means you're cutting control of your calculations to someone who runs the server." That's what fools do. " This view is not comprehensive. It is likely that the actual process will be that only with local personal data based on context-specific integration, network data can play a role in personalized service. In this sense, the IaaS of Cloud 2.0 will be more human-oriented (such as context-related timeline), not just object oriented ("Water electric").
2 PAAs 2.0. The analogy of PAAs water and electricity is difficult to generalize, and its metaphor is closer to the plant (or plant). The platform is the sedimentation area of the assets. Cloud computing platform is the sedimentation area of data assets. The cost of sedimentation in economics (irrevocable fixed cost) corresponds to the platform cost. If the water electric analogy is the original data, the platform data corresponding should be processing data, especially as an asset data, this data can be in the process of value-added. The change in the Cloud 2.0 era is that PAAs evolves into AAAS (analysis is service). Here, analysis refers to the processing of data. P Here is the processing platform. The data mining and intelligence analysis ability of the business data itself will become the main symbol of PAAs in the 2.0 era.
Here, the difference between IT services and business services is that IT services add value to the data and do not add value to the data. In the past, data hosting was equivalent to a registry where the data were not intended to be changed from a commercial perspective, and 2.0 per cent of trusteeship would be like a nursery to add value to education, and children who had been taught by nurseries would be smarter than before. In reality, this service is more like outsourcing (BPO or crowdsourcing). For example, now E-commerce has a generation of operating industry, for the operation of the industry to provide data Services platform, is 2.0 of the sense of the cloud platform. Making money on behalf of others is obviously different from the service for others in escrow tools such as hard drives.
Today, 2.0 of PAAs is emerging in the forefront of cloud computing. For example, by setting up an electronic data interchange platform to enable smaller vendors to access more than 1300 0 distributors, the cloud platform focuses not on memory, but on how to manage the entire transaction from inventory to shipping and invoice revenue quickly and cheaply. For example, traditional ERP users are turning to NetSuite. NetSuite provides the enterprise with special application service outside the core business, through the API called Suitflex, enables the merchant to provide the flexible development ability for some specialized application, causes the specific establishment transaction to realize the complete automation. Roostock Company parasitic on the Suitflex platform, using its underlying cloud services, the MRP (manufacturing and material requirements planning) application from the cloud, moved to the cloud.
3 SaaS 2.0. Limited to space, I can't go into the 2.0 problem of SaaS. The main thing is that there is a ready-made textbook on the subject for me to be lazy. This is the book "Cloud: 7 Clear business Models" written by Professor Zhou of Stanford University. The book is written entirely on the 2.0 concept of cloud computing. Most of the models and cases discussed inside are 2.0 SaaS. Highly recommended to everyone.
4, Cloud Computing 2.0 requirements for performance standards change
Cloud computing to talk about the benefits, but not the current full of cloud experts talk about the technical accounts (such as electricity saving accounts, carbon emissions accounts, etc.), but the "user-centric" this fundamental benefit of the account.
1 improve the performance of cloud computing readiness to the performance of management applications
Cloud 1.0 does not have a formed performance metric, but it is implicit in the general behavior. Its first problem is to count inputs, not to ask for output. This is from the current cloud computing common repeated construction, horse-race enclosure behavior. The second issue is the pursuit of a readiness performance, which is seen in engineering projects where inputs are mostly focused on infrastructure and technology.
From the information evaluation standards, the effect of the ready is a low-level effect, the crux of the problem is not necessarily equal to the application, application is not necessarily equal to the user-centric effect. Cloud Computing 2.0 performance standards, in the ready indicators on the basis of adding business application indicators, on the application of indicators, add based on the user effect of indicators. In order to reverse supplier-led error-oriented in target mode.
2 Improve technical performance to strategic performance
Prior to cloud computing, information technology innovation, more or less the idea of business innovation accompanied by, or flat, or free mode, and so on. But Cloud 1.0 in the management of the idea is very vague, in addition to technology or technology, the CEO concerned about issues such as strategy, governance, model, organization, management, and so on, there is no idea of innovation, no wonder entrepreneurs often can not understand from the business perspective of what the cloud is doing, what is the use
Cloud 2.0 should strive to change this state. Through the integration with the economy, cloud computing from technology development to productivity, and then promote enterprise strategic innovation, model innovation and management innovation. From the performance point of view, Cloud Computing 2.0 to pursue, not only the technical benefits of cloud computing, this is only a shallow level, but to pursue the deep benefits of cloud computing, including the strategic benefits of integration into the enterprise strategy, promote the transformation of model innovation benefits, and organizational innovation management benefits. Generally speaking, the performance goal orientation should not only the enterprise cloud, the government cloud level effect, but the cloud enterprise, the cloud government level effect.
The economics of Cloud 2.0
Cloud Computing 1.0 Benefit analysis has been immature, outstanding performance in the calculation of the leakage of two points, one is too much emphasis on the technical analysis of the effect, but the loss of economic relations (including production relations, management and System) changes, as if the productivity (human and natural relations) do not use for productive relations (human relations) to produce chemical reactions The second is that the technical effect is too much emphasis on the efficiency of input-output, and the performance characteristics of cloud computing are omitted. Cloud computing 2.0 What kind of discoveries will it make in economics, since more factors are taken into account in relation to people?
Interpretation of technical and economic effects: the difference between efficiency and effectiveness
The idea that cloud computing is more efficient is not in place, and that any technological innovation can be more efficient, where is cloud computing special? I think the special thing is that cloud computing can improve performance. Including two points, the first is cloud computing through cloud and end of the separation and complementarity, adjust the fixed investment and marginal input proportional relationship, resulting in the economic effect of increasing returns. This is not just a change in efficiency, but also a change in the efficiency rate. The second is to change the positive and negative direction of efficiency change rate, which is the theoretical basis of the transformation effect of cloud computing. The distinction between efficiency and effectiveness, not only embodies the characteristics of cloud computing, but also clear that the role of cloud computing is premised on the assumption that the complexity of the task system as a scale, to achieve the threshold of complexity to play the role of cloud computing, otherwise cloud computing not only can not improve efficiency, but will reduce efficiency. Third, the combination of large data can be found that the more special part of cloud computing is that by changing the nature of fixed inputs (play the role of data assets in the core business), can systematically change the personalized economy to personalized economic, which constitutes its strategic innovation (low-cost differentiation) The effect of the foundation.
The explanation of institutional economics: the relationship between property rights
To jump out of the technology and see the system Mapping of technology (the role and influence of the relationship between man and nature), cloud computing is a system innovation of resource allocation mode. The innovation point is that through the combination of the different allocation resources of the cloud (virtual sharing asset) and the end-to-end (differentiated Value added), the fission of the ownership internal domination and the right to use is realized. Cloud computing is charged for use, in essence, it is based on the separation of the right to use charges, its premise is the means of production (platform, development tools, etc.) to share, both the formation of productive resources free and labor (service) fees (such as SaaS software fees and service charges) of the new relationship, sublation of capital and Labor opposition.
This is confined to cloud computing 1.0 to see the economic impact of not penetrating, when Cloud 2.0 transforms the two-dollar relationship between the cloud and the end into a business relationship, humanity will have a spectacle: it can be liberated by copying data-form assets, "hitting tyrants", to each terminal like a grandchild's hair, such as app Four hundred thousand or five hundred thousand developers in store mode-labor. Cloud computing starts with technology and ultimately returns to people.
(Responsible editor: Lu Guang)