Reliable Multicast Programming (PGM)
This section describes the Pragmatic General Multicast (PGM) multicast protocol implementation in Windows, often referred to as reliable multicast. Reliable

The chapter is quite low, but very important!Everything around us is almost dependent on abstracting things down to a lower level and at some point detailing them in some design concepts. The interface layer is clear and the target is very focused, the application does not consider how the operating system works, the operating system does not have to consider how the hardware works, the 4th layer of the OSI model does not need to consider how the third layer works. So we just need to focus on a

Reprint http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4fc7368a0100okbq.html
1, multicast and broadcast need to be in the LAN to achieve, and also to see whether the Linux system support multicast and broadcast: Ifconfig up broadcast multicast mtu:1500 metric: 1Explains that the NIC supports2, send multicast packet host need to set t

To read the. pgm file in C, please link the blog http://blog.csdn.net/a350203223/article/details/13102513
PGM file Format PGM----Portable Graymap format.
The PGM format is the minimum standard for grayscale file formats. The format of the PGM file is defined as follows: A

First, the basic introduction of multicastMulticast refers to the way that a sending source sends a single IP packet over the network to a specific set of recipients. Multicast combined with the advantages of unicast and broadcast, in the point-to-multipoint transmission, the sending source does not need to care about the number of recipients, only send a message, the router is only concerned about the interface under the recipient, also do not need t

Label: PPM PGM PBM
Portable pixmap is a set of portable image formats defined by the netpbm project. These images are in the same format.
It is easier to process and has nothing to do with the platform. Therefore, portable is a relatively direct image format. For example, PPM stores the RGB values of each vertex separately.
. Therefore, files in the PPM format are not compressed and relatively large. However, because the image format is simple, they a

1. What is multicast 1. What is multicast? Multicast is a data packet transmission method. When multiple hosts become the receiver of a data packet at the same time, multicast becomes the best choice for bandwidth and CPU load. Www.2cto.com 2. How does multicast work?

http://blog.csdn.net/pipisorry/article/details/52489321Markov NetworkMarkov networks are commonly referred to as Markov random fields (Markov random field, MRF) in computer vision.Markov network is a method to characterize the joint distribution on X.Like Bayesian networks, a Markov network can be seen as defining a series of independent assumptions determined by the graph structure.Phi BlogAn example of a misunderstanding of a non-graphic modelP-mapAn example of a Bayesian network that cannot b

http://blog.csdn.net/pipisorry/article/details/52469064the use of independent natureConditional parameterization and conditional independence assumptions are combined to produce a very compact representation of the high-dimensional probability distributions.Independence of random variables[PGM: The basic knowledge of probability theory : The use of independent nature]Conditional Parameterization MethodNote:p (I), p (S | i0), p (S | i1) are all two-ite

I. PGM
Figure from: http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_5980285201011z75.html
Ii. Reasoning Based on the probability graph model. Example:
For example, if a message is sent through a noisy channel, the information is composed of 0 and 1. Due to the noisy, each bit has a probability of 20% error. Due to the characteristics of the sent signal, the probability of 1 followed by 1 and 0 followed by a 0 is 0.9. If a bit string "1101" is received, what is the m

The probabilistic graphical model series is explained by Daphne Koller In the probabilistic graphical model of the Stanford open course. Https://class.coursera.org/pgm-2012-002/class/index)
Main contents include (reprinted please indicate the original source http://blog.csdn.net/yangliuy)
1. probabilistic Graph Model Representation and deformation of Bayesian Networks and Markov networks.
2. Reasoning and inference methods, including Exact Inference (

really simple, it can only be used in the case of weak correlation of random variables, but very many cases are actually very weak ... So the naïve Bayes effect surprisingly effectiveNaive Bayes is widely used in various fields. It's not going to unfold here. There are quite a few advantages. Welcome to the discussion and follow the this blog Weibo personal homepage Reprint Please respect the author's labor. Full retention of the above text and links to the article, thank you for

following is a visual sense of conditional independence , 9Figure 9There are 2 coins, one just evenly. There is also an uneven and 90% probability of being able to face up. Of course, the two coins look exactly the same.Now let you take out one. Ready to throw 2 times.You throw it first, you find the face up, and you can believe it. The second or front-facing probability is definitely added. The result of the second coin was affected by the first coin cast.And now I'm telling you, in fact, you

convert a directed graph to an undirected graph, we can simply connect any two nodes to form a fully connected undirected graph. However, we discard all the conditional independence features. However, the moralization process can retain the maximum number of independent features in an undirected graph by adding the least number of connections .)
The undirected graph corresponding to the figure above is as follows:
Summary: The general step of converting a directed graph to an undirected graph i

The probabilistic graphical model series is explained by Daphne Koller In the probabilistic graphical model of the Stanford open course. Https://class.coursera.org/pgm-2012-002/class/index)
Main contents include (reprinted please indicate the original source http://blog.csdn.net/yangliuy)
1. probabilistic Graph Model Representation and deformation of Bayesian Networks and Markov networks.
2. Reasoning and inference methods, including Exact Inference (

used to define probability distribution in a high-dimensional space.
Factors can be multiplied (fig. 5), marginalized (fig. 6), and reduced (fig. 7 ).
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
The conditional probability distribution of the student model mentioned above can be drawn in a picture.
Each node represents a factor, and some CPDs have become non-conditional probabilities.
Figure 8
Chain rule)
9. Probability Distribution is defined by the product of a fact

: "like a stack of the same Board (And the reason for calling it a plate is because the intuition ofthis is a stack of identical plates, that's kind of where the idea comes from, fora plate model.)"
The Board draws a small box around the output variable and writes the index of the output variable in the lower right corner of the box. For example, the duplicate score model is indexed by student s:
Nested Plates)
Nested panels think that the inner layer must be indexed by the outer layer.
Ove

What is multicast
Unicast is used for end-to-end communication between two hosts, which is used for data communication of a host on all hosts on the local network. Unicast and broadcast are two extremes, either communicating to a single host or communicating to a host on the entire LAN. In practice, it is often necessary to communicate with a specific set of hosts, rather than all hosts on the entire LAN, which is the purpose of multicasting.

Why to use multicast:
The network card receives the target physical address from the net the corresponding all bit bit bits all 1 data timekeeping, will receive this message and passes it to the driver, this network card's working mode is called the broadcast mode, the network card's default working mode contains the direct mode and the broadcast mode. With this feature, the UDP (User Datagram Protocol) also provides the ability to send broadcast pack

Multicast (multicast) transfer:A point-to-multipoint network connection is implemented between the sender and each receiver. If a sender transmits the same data to multiple receivers at the same time, only one copy of the same packet is copied. It improves the efficiency of data transfer. Reduces the likelihood of congestion in the backbone network. The differences between unicast,

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