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In the past two or three years, with the development of knowledge economy and the construction of information superhighway, e-commerce activities have formed a wave and flourished on the Internet.
First, electricity in business is a commercial revolution
Since last year, our country in e-commerce development is also very rapid, in the end of 1998 statistics, the national Internet number of 2 million, according to the recent statistics, the first half of 1999 nationwide Internet access number has reached 4 million people. E-commerce is rapidly penetrating into every sector, connecting businesses, communities, governments and individuals. Many businesses, units, governments and individuals open websites on the internet, publicize themselves, issue opinions, communicate with each other, get information, look for opportunities, some open online stores, sell goods and services online, and more people send and receive emails, surf the web, read news, advertise, fry stocks and listen to music as consumers or visitors. , watching movies. Look up information, read novels, apply for a job, propose, buy goods and even play games. Surfing through the web, some businesses booming business, expanding sales, expanding the market share, some netizens at home, sitting in the computer next to a mouse click, you can in the vast online store goods, the other side of the Pacific to find what they want to buy, and very convenient to buy a deal, And someone will buy the goods to the doorstep. The internet has narrowed the space time distance between people, and brought a profound revolutionary change to society, to people's life and work mode.
The basic features of e-commerce are:
1. Internet based network environment, the real market environment of Cross-border;
2. Take the computer website as the basic unit, the virtual real market store, the bank, the tax bureau and so on market basic unit;
3. The actual business affairs processing informationization, information processing electronic. namely the actual business affairs processing, including order, sale, payment, attestation and so on have become the information processing on the network.
E-commerce will lead to a profound revolution, which presumably no one doubts. But the significance and depth of the revolution is now not estimated. I think the following points may be conceivable:
1. The revolution was a deeper revolution than the industrial revolution. The Industrial Revolution of the 17th century, marked by mechanized production and expansion of scale, transformed manual production and individual labor into mechanized mass production, greatly increased productivity and promoted the development of production. This time the revolution caused by E-commerce, it is a high-tech and information revolution. On the one hand, the transaction processing information, the store, products, advertising, ordering, purchase, money payment, certification and other physical and transaction processing virtualization information, so that they become detached from the entity and can be processed on the computer network. On the other hand, the information processing is electronic. All information processing is processed by electronic means such as computer, email, file transmission, data communication and so on. In fact, it strengthens the information processing, domestication the entity processing, using information processing to control the command entity processing, making the entity processing more scientific and efficient. Therefore, this will be to give full play to the value of information on economic development, make full use of human knowledge and wisdom, more scientific and reasonable organization and use of limited resources to create the greatest economic benefits. If the industrial revolution is to strengthen people's physical strength (hands and feet, etc.), the creation of an industrial economy, this time the revolution is to strengthen the human intelligence (brain), the creation of an information economy. The information economy is actually a knowledge-based economy and a high-tech economy. Because the most basic characteristic of information economy is computer network, so people call it the net economy most intuitively.
2. Industrial restructuring. Because the electronic commerce this revolution is the material and the transaction processing informationization, causes the transaction processing content, the processing method and the processing procedure has had the revolutionary change, therefore this revolution inevitably causes the industrial reorganization. Some of the original industries, business units will gradually die out, will be a new increase in some industries, enterprises and units to expand some industries.
Enterprises and units. For example, Telegraph industry, letter delivery industry will gradually die out, will be a new increase in some industries, such as network advertising, information services, etc., will compress some industries, such as paper, paper publishing industry, will expand some industries, such as logistics, communications industry.
Maybe there won't be many shops and bank stores like today, people are shopping online virtual stores, the virtual store product display function will be more than the current physical store display more powerful, shopping payments do not have to run to the store or the bank, people sitting on the computer by clicking the mouse click on the Internet bank can be.
The reorganization of industry has fundamentally changed the mechanism of internal operation, external cooperation and communication, and has improved the efficiency of the whole social resources.
3. In the era of information economy, future competition will be the competition of information. Information transmission through the Internet, breaking the boundaries of space and region, greatly improve the efficiency of information processing, but also fully demonstrated the economic benefits of the message. Also greatly expands the competition space, creates the commercial opportunity in the larger scope.
Second, electricity in business will upgrade the logistics industry to unprecedented heights
E-commerce led to a major restructuring of the industry, the demise of the shops, banks and other enterprises where the people go? Go to the logistics industry, make deliveries, or go to the Internet bank (where it will be much larger than the current business), or go to other services. After the demise of a large number of stores and banks, the distribution centers and logistics centers that are distributed by region will be replaced.
As a result of the reorganization of the industry, there are only two industries left in the society, one is industry, including manufacturing and logistics. One is the information industry, including advertising, ordering, sales, purchase, service, finance, payment and information processing industries. These two industries can be understood as one is the "real" industry, the other is the "virtual" industry.
In the "real" industry, the manufacturing industry and the logistics industry in comparison, manufacturing enterprises will gradually weaken, and logistics enterprises will gradually strengthen. Manufacturing enterprises will become more and more weakened, mainly because: with the economic development and productivity level, the society has moved from a shortage of economy to the rest of the economy, the vast majority of products, there are more supply than demand phenomenon. Even if there is a temporary shortage of products, due to high technology and high productivity levels, coupled with competition for profit, the output of this product will rise rapidly, and soon it will be from shortage to surplus. So, the more backward, the more difficult to find a business, can be long-term unchanged only to produce its inherent products. With the improvement of people's living standards, demand products increasingly personalized, high-grade, the life cycle of goods is also getting shorter, so the production of products must be more and more rapid changes, today, the production of this product, perhaps tomorrow will dap another product, today the enterprise can still exist, Maybe tomorrow won't exist. It is in order to adapt to this situation, so recently appeared the so-called flexible theory, the emergence of flexible manufacturing, flexible enterprises, virtual enterprises. The basic characteristic of flexible enterprise is that its organizational structure is composed of some basic functional units, which are temporarily combined according to the needs of product production, and can change with the change of product variety specification. With the increase of this kind of enterprise, especially the increase of fictitious enterprise, make the enterprise entity of the manufacturing industry have to change at any time, when big time is small, at this time, even when save time die, that is to say more and more weakening.
Logistics enterprises will be more and more intensified, this is because: in the e-commerce environment, consumers in the online virtual shop shopping, and online payment, delivery function by the logistics company to bear. In other words, the real store is gone, the bank is gone, and the logistics company is not only unable to save, but also the task increased. Logistics companies not only to the virtual store goods to the user hand, but also from the various production enterprises timely purchase, storage to the logistics warehouse. The logistics company is not only the warehouse of the production enterprise, but also the physical supplier of the user.
The mode of logistics operation in e-commerce environment is shown in Figure 1. As you can see, in an e-commerce environment, with the vast majority of store banks virtualization. Business affairs processing Informationization, most production enterprise flexibility, the whole market is left only physical logistics processing work. Logistics enterprises become the representative of all production enterprises and suppliers to the user in kind supply of the only most concentrated, the broadest supply, is the local market for the physical supply of the only subject, can be seen e-commerce to upgrade the logistics industry to unprecedented. What a height! Logistics enterprises should realize that E-commerce provides them with an unprecedented development opportunities!
Third, electricity in the business situation of logistics industry development Strategy
In the face of this situation of e-commerce development, logistics enterprises should feel the heavy responsibilities, should seize the opportunity to seriously develop the strategy and strategy of logistics industry development. Among them, I think the following points are of particular importance:
1. The establishment and development of the logistics industry adapting to the economic situation of the network is a big social project, to the whole region. Even the whole society unified understanding, the formation of resultant force, especially to get the government's support, the Government should come forward to organize the planning and implementation. The reason for the government to come forward, because it involves such as industrial restructuring of almost all enterprises and people involved in the revolutionary changes, without proper government planning organizations, it is difficult to rely on enterprises to do their own work is hard to achieve.
The Government should proceed in a step-by-step manner in planning the project. The first is the infrastructure----Network, Internet. The rapid formation of the Internet and intranet covering the entire region. To mobilize organizations, families and individuals to access the Internet, in particular to mobilize enterprises, banks to establish web sites on the Internet, the establishment of virtual shops, virtual banks, to carry out e-commerce.
With the development of electronic commerce, natural will gradually carry out industrial reorganization. At this time, it is necessary to plan to abolish some real shops, the actual bank branches, branches, business points, and at the same time the Laid-off workers in these enterprises to form a reasonable distribution center.
Several distribution centers can be merged into a logistics company or a cargo circulation center. In this way, it will gradually form a perfect logistics industry.
2. The establishment of distribution centers, logistics enterprises in the beginning must be reasonable planning layout.
The logistics industry is a system, which should form a logistics enterprise system, which is interrelated, distinguishing, cooperating with each other and having hierarchical structure. To set up a comprehensive distribution center in each community, to be responsible for the delivery of the community, a number of communities together to establish a large logistics center, responsible for the distribution centers in various communities to deliver goods, there are larger logistics centers, such as Port terminals, railway stations, responsible for the whole region, and even to the mainland outflows to transfer supplies. Different logistics enterprises assume different functions and support each other and form a logistics enterprise system with complete function and reasonable layout.
3. Establish a third party logistics model. Third-party logistics model, is a completely professional logistics model. Production enterprises specializing in production, the production of raw materials supply enterprises, the production of products such as sales and delivery of logistics business to the logistics enterprises to undertake. The logistics enterprise is the big housekeeper of the production enterprise, not only is responsible for "after" diligent, also is responsible for "former" diligent. In this way, the logistics enterprises will fully and rationally and effectively organize the use of resources, not only to ensure their own economic benefits, but also to ensure the economic benefits of production enterprises.
The biggest difficulty in establishing a third party logistics model is the system. Production enterprises worry that they have become a subsidiary of Logistics enterprises, logistics enterprises into the supply of warehouses. In fact, this method of thinking is narrow. Logistics enterprises directly face the market, it according to the needs of the market to organize and regulate the production of several production enterprises, forming an economic union to face the market, what is not good.
4. In order to meet the needs of electronic commerce, the function of distribution centres should be changed. The basic functions of these distribution centers should be:
L) The storage of goods, whether produced by a production enterprise or transported from a field, to supply the production or life needs of the region, must be stored in a warehouse here for delivery.
2 transportation, that is, delivery and purchase. According to the online sales of information, the online sales of goods to the user hands. Also to timely purchase, to ensure timely absorption of production enterprise products (will be done here into the production enterprise's finished product library), but also to ensure that the goods are not out of stock.
3 packaging, loading and unloading, circulation processing and other functions. These functional traditional logistics centers and distribution centers have, in the case of E-commerce, but also to increase the following two features:
L) Product display function
2 Sales and retail functions
Since most stores are canceled, people usually shop in virtual shops online and do not come to physical stores. But sometimes, especially holiday travel, people also want to visit the mall, to see the kind. Therefore, logistics centers, distribution centers also need to meet these needs and the addition of display and retail functions. Because the demand is not too much. Therefore, the attached in the Logistics Center and Distribution Center is more appropriate. If these requirements are large, or if the Logistics Center distribution Center is unwilling to add these functions, it must be in the Logistics Center distribution center, but also to retain the right amount of super shopping malls.
5. The establishment of logistics enterprises should be based on High-tech, a high starting point. The network economy period, in fact, is a high-tech economic model. Logistics enterprises to adapt to e-commerce, we must strive to rely on science and technology, based on a high starting point.
First of all, logistics enterprises to the Internet. To build a site on the web, provide information. In addition to the introduction of the company, warehouse. Goods information, especially to provide users care about the delivery of information, the user has purchased the goods delivered no, when to send, how much.
To have a high level of advanced storage and transportation facilities. To have adequate storage facilities, advanced packaging handling and storage equipment, there should be a comfortable and spacious display of goods and retail venues. To have a strong and advanced transport fleet and strong throughput capacity. Also need to have wireless communication equipment, can contact the Internet at any time. In short, we must strive to establish a modern level of logistics enterprises. There should be a strict scientific management system. It also needs to realize the informatization of things processing and electronic information processing. Make full use of computers and computer networks to process information. The use of wireless communications, satellite communications and data transmission, e-mail and other tools for physical processing.
Article compiling: China Research Center for the Business-to-consumer.
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